Thursday, January 23, 2020
Southwest has made an organization out of providing low-fare, short haul routes between city pairs. It has concentrated specifically on offering low-fares on all of its flights by maintaining its no frills attitude and high frequency of flights. This has afforded Southwest Airlines with the lowest cost structure in the industry. Southwest has created a niche for itself by flying a network of flights between smaller U.S. cities that average just one hour apart. This has differentiated them from their competition and avoided many clashes with industry giants who concentrate more on coast-to-coast flights. Kelleher, who is the president, chairman and CEO of Southwest Airlines is the companies single biggest asset and driving force. Kelleher runs the company very tightly and makes all the major decisions through a very centralized decision making process. This brings to light two potential problems. Firstly, how can a company such as Southwest airlines maintain such a centralized organi zation in the face of growth. Secondly, how is this company going to survive once Kelleher is no longer running it. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The problem that Southwest Airline is facing, is how are they going to survive in an aggressive industry without KelleherÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership. It is a significant problem as the company is a symbol of Kelleher. However, unlike the company, Kelleher has a limited life-span and therefore the company will likely outlive him. This problem therefore requires some urgency as the succession of Kelleher could be the airlines biggest problem. The consequences of Kelleher leaving could be that the company loses its corporate identity. Employees may not respond well to new management. Customers may perceive that the company will not be run in the same manner and will therefore lose its niche market. This could also apply to stakeholders, who will see the departure of Kelleher as a serious decrease in the value of the company. Competitors may also try to take advantage of the company during this unstable period. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Kelleher is the face of Southwest airlines, even going as far as starring in most of their TV commercials. He also personally maintains an excellent relationship with a virtually all-union workforce. He has single handedly given Southwest the lowest employees turnover rate in the industry. KelleherÃ¢â¬â¢s personal motiva... ...with the reality of the firm. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The implementation of this decision will require a marketing campaign that will be used to phase out Kelleher. The major resistance will be from the employees who will be fearful of new management. This will be addressed by the management team reinforcing the corporate strategies to the employees and reiterating the fact that Southwest airlines will remain the same company and the employees should expect things to stay the same. The ramifications of this plan is that power within Southwest could become to decentralized, therefore changing the core competencies of the firm. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In order for this plan to work it would require: Assembling a team to head the marketing campaign, restructuring of upper management, and decentralize decision making. The objective is to redefine and restructure the upper management in such a way that the loss of Kelleher is manageable. This plans effectiveness will be measured by employee and customer satisfaction throughout the transition. The project will be concluded when the new structure has been phased in and the reaction to KelleherÃ¢â¬â¢s departure is under control.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
In Act 2 Scene 2, Lines 1 to 13 of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"MacbethÃ¢â¬ , Shakespeare questions the reader about who in truth is controlling Macbeth, Lady Macbeth or himself. Shakespeare also makes us ponder if Lady Macbeth has a healthy ambition, that she herself controls, or if her ambition is controlling her. The three main themes of Evil, Ambition, and Macbeth-The Victim of Manipulation are heightened through the use of Positive and Negative Sleep Motifs, expressed in a negative context. Also found in this selection are examples of Negative Diction, Religious Symbolism, and Animal Imagery which all develop the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of death, and develop the three key themes that circulate around the idea of death. Contrast is used to express the difference in power and confidence between Lady Macbeth and King DuncanÃ¢â¬â¢s attendants, and also to distinguish life and death, in the case of the attendants. Punctuation is used very effectively. Through the use of punctuation, one can visualize the emotions of Lady Macbeth. During the first few lines, each line is its own individual sentence, which ends in a period or colon. Simply by looking at the punctuation one can see that she is calm. Near the end of these lines, Lady Macbeth uses many commas, caesuras, and enjambments, she is out of order. Here one can sense just how nervous and frightened Lady Macbeth is. The final key device used in these lines is Foreshadowing. It gives the reader a glance at what will come out of Lady Macbeth and MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to kill Duncan through the archetype of Ã¢â¬Å"fireÃ¢â¬ , which appears in line 2. Fire symbolizes light and warmth, yet at the same time symbolizes chaos and destruction. This can be related to their decision which will either make them or break them. Found throughout this passage are many literary devices, all of which are significant. However the most significant devices are Negative Diction, Religious Symbolism, and Sleep Motif. Religious Symbolism is immensely important in shaping Lady MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s character and sculpting the recurring themes, yet does not appear nearly as much as Negative Diction and Sleep Motif. One can find Lady Macbeth say Ã¢â¬Å"The doors are openÃ¢â¬ , Here she is literally talking about the doors to DuncanÃ¢â¬â¢s chamber, however one can interpret these doors as the doors of death. The doors are open for Duncan to walk through. This line can be related to Alexander Grahame BellÃ¢â¬â¢s famous quote Ã¢â¬Å"As one door closes, another door opens. Ã¢â¬ Both Lady MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s and Mr. BellÃ¢â¬â¢s quotes relate to death in a way; the door of life closes, and the door of death opens, waiting for us to walk through. Another example of Religious Symbolism is found in the lines Ã¢â¬Å"That death and nature do contend about them // Whether they live or die. This is symbolic of God and the Devil having a battle for the lives of the attendants, and later dueling for them to either be rewarded in Heaven or condemned to Hell. The image of God and the Devil gambling for the souls of the dead is expressed in the song Ã¢â¬Å"Spanish TrainÃ¢â¬ by Chris De Burgh. This song has a similar religious meaning, as in both one can see a battle going on between God and the Devil for minor pawns or as one likes to say, humans. Another device, Sleep Motif, is used throughout these lines to portray the idea of sleep. In this piece one can find two main ideas: death and sleep. These two ideas are interconnected by a Religious meaning. One can see just how cleverly William Shakespeare uses the two devices of religious symbolism and sleep motif. Without one, the other, would not be as important. These two tools work hand in hand to develop the character of Lady Macbeth and the several themes throughout the play. Most of these sleep-orbiting words can be divided into three categories. The first category being what one usually consider sleep as, what we do each night in order to rest our body for the new day. This category can be referred to as the conscious form of sleep. Words that fall under this category are Ã¢â¬Å"good-nightÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"snoresÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"sleptÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"awakedÃ¢â¬ . These terms are the most positive sleep revolving words found in these lines. The next form of sleep is the sub-conscience form of sleep. This form of sleep is commonly known as Ã¢â¬Å"drunkÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"intoxicatedÃ¢â¬ , and is usually found quite discouraging. Ã¢â¬Å"DrunkÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"SurfeitedÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"DruggÃ¢â¬â¢dÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"PossetsÃ¢â¬ fall under the sub-conscious form of sleep. The last category of sleep is the unconscious form. Words that fall under this category may seem depressing for non-believers of an afterlife or second life, but for believers they symbolize a new beginning. This form of sleep is tied in greatly with religious symbolism because it is rooted in the spiritual life. One does not quite know what happens after death, however there is a general belief that the spirit lives on, while the body lays under an eternal rest. The reader can see just how influential sleep is in this excerpt. One sees a sleeping Duncan, and later a deceased Duncan and also sees drunk attendants by DuncanÃ¢â¬â¢s side. In these few lines the reader envisions all three types of sleep. Although both Sleep Motifs and Religious Symbolisms play a huge role in shaping the themes of this scene, the most used device, and particularly important in these 13 lines is Negative Diction. Throughout, one sees words spoken wickedly by Lady Macbeth. She speaks wickedly about a wicked deed. Throughout the text one can see numerous examples of negative diction; Ã¢â¬Å"drunkÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"sternÃ¢â¬â¢st good-nightÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"the owl that shriekÃ¢â¬â¢d the fatal bellmanÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"surfeitedÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"mockÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"druggÃ¢â¬â¢dÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"deathÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"dieÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"confoundsÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"afraidÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"daggersÃ¢â¬ . Through Lady MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s vocabulary one can easily sense just how sinister Lady Macbeth is in both her words and actions. In this section of Ã¢â¬Å"MacbethÃ¢â¬ one finds several literary tools that aid in conveying the character of Lady Macbeth and the three central themes. The most important devices used throughout this passage include Religious Symbolism, Sleep Motif, and Negative Diction. These three devices are interconnected as they revolve around the ideas of sleep and death. These three terms work together to shape the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of death and sleep which Shakespeare exemplifies to us through Lady MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s manipulation of Macbeth into the killing of the righteous King Duncan. The reader can relate what Shakespeare illustrates to the Human Condition. Everybody in life has ambitions, be it big or small, most people strive to help themselves, and through helping themselves, they help others around them. In few scenarios like in the case of Lady Macbeth, her foul ambitions overpower her and corrupt her to a point of sheer evil.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Count Casimir Pulaski was a noted Polish cavalry commander who saw action during conflicts in Poland and later served in the American Revolution. Early Life Born March 6, 1745, inÃ Warsaw, Poland, Casimir Pulaski was the son of Jozef and Marianna Pulaski. Schooled locally, Pulaski attended the college of Theatines in Warsaw but did not complete his education. The Advocatus of the Crown Tribunal and the Starosta of Warka, Pulaskis father was a man of influence and was able to obtain for his son the position of page to Carl Christian Joseph of Saxony, Duke of Courland in 1762. Living in the dukes household in Mitau, Pulaski and the remainder of the court were effectively kept captive by the Russians who held hegemony over the region. Returning home the following year, he received the title of starost of ZezuliÃ âce. In 1764, Pulaski and his family supported the election of StanisÃ âaw August Poniatowski as King and Grand Duke of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. War of the Bar Confederation By late 1767, the Pulaskis had become dissatisfied with Poniatowski who proved unable to curb Russian influence in the Commonwealth. Feeling that their rights were being threatened, they joined with other nobles in early 1768 and formed a confederation against the government. Meeting at Bar, Podolia, they formed the Bar Confederation and began military operations. Appointed as a cavalry commander, Pulaski began agitating among government forces and was able to secure some defections. On April 20, he won his first battle when he clashed with the enemy near PohoreÃ âe and achieved another triumph at Starokostiantyniv three days later. Despite these initial successes, he was beaten on April 28 at KaczanÃ ³wka.Ã Moving to Chmielnik in May, Pulaski garrisoned the town but was later compelled to withdraw when reinforcements for his command were beaten. On June 16, Pulaski was captured after attempting to hold the monastery in BerdyczÃ ³w. Taken by the Russians, they freed him on June 28 after forcing him to pledge that he would not play any further role in the war and that he would work to end the conflict. Returning to the Confederations army, Pulaski promptly renounced the pledge stating that it had been made under duress and therefore was not binding. Despite this, the fact that he had made the pledge reduced his popularity and led some to question whether he should be court-martialed. Resuming active duty in September 1768, he was able to escape the siege of Okopy Ã Å¡wiÃâ¢tej TrÃ ³jcy early the following year. As 1768 progressed, Pulaski conducted a campaign in Lithuania in the hopes of inciting a larger rebellion against the Russians. Though these efforts proved ineffective, he succeeded in bringing 4,000 recruits back for the Confederation. Over the next year, Pulaski developed a reputation as one of the Confederations best field commanders. Continuing to campaign, he suffered a defeat at the Battle of Wlodawa on Sept. 15, 1769, and fell back toÃ Podkarpacie to rest and refit his men. As a result of his achievements, Pulaski received an appointment to the War Council in March 1771. Despite his skill, he proved difficult to work with and often preferred to operate independently rather than in concert with his allies. That fall, the Confederation commenced a plan to kidnap the king. Though initially resistant, Pulaski later agreed to the plan on the condition that Poniatowski was not harmed. Fall from Power Moving forward, the plot failed and those involved were discredited and the Confederation saw its international reputation damaged. Increasingly distancing himself from his allies, Pulaski spent the winter and spring of 1772 operating around CzÃâ¢stochowa. In May, he departed the Commonwealth and traveled to Silesia. While in Prussian territory, the Bar Confederation was finally defeated. Tried in absentia, Pulaski was later stripped of his titles and sentenced to death should he ever return to Poland. Seeking employment, he unsuccessfully attempted to obtain a commission in the French Army and later sought to create a Confederation unit during the Russo-Turkish War. Arriving in the Ottoman Empire, Pulaski made little progress before the Turks were defeated. Forced to flee, he departed for Marseilles.Ã Crossing the Mediterranean, Pulaski arrived in France where he was imprisoned for debts in 1775. After six weeks in prison, his friends secured his release. Coming to America In late summer 1776, Pulaski wrote to the leadership Poland and asked to be allowed to return home. Not receiving a reply, he began to discuss the possibility of serving in the American Revolution with his friend Claude-Carloman de RulhiÃ ¨re. Connected to the Marquis de Lafayette and Benjamin Franklin, RulhiÃ ¨re was able to arrange a meeting. This gathering went well and Franklin was highly impressed with the Polish cavalryman. As a result, the American envoy recommended Pulaski to General George Washington and provided a letter of introduction stating that the count was renowned throughout Europe for the courage and bravery he displayed in defense of his countrys freedom. Traveling to Nantes, Pulaski embarked aboard Massachusetts and sailed for America. Arriving at Marblehead, MA on July 23, 1777, he wrote to Washington and informed the American commander that I came here, where freedom is being defended, to serve it, and to live or die for it. Joining the Continental Army Riding south, Pulaski met Washington at the armys headquarters at Neshaminy Falls just north of Philadelphia, PA. Demonstrating his riding ability, he also argued the merits of a strong cavalry wing for the army. Though impressed, Washington lacked the power to give the Pole a commission and a result, Pulaski was forced to spend the next several weeks communicating with the Continental Congress as he worked to secure an official rank. During this time, he traveled with the army and on Sept. 11 was present for the Battle of Brandywine. As the engagement unfolded, he requested permission to take Washingtons bodyguard detachment to scout the American right. In doing so, he found that General Sir William Howe was attempting to flank Washingtons position. Later in the day, with the battle going poorly, Washington empowered Pulaski to gather available forces to cover the American retreat. Effective in this role, the Pole mounted a key charge which aided in holding back the British. In recognition of his efforts, Pulaski was made brigadier general of cavalry on Sept. 15. The first officer to oversee the Continental Armys horse, he became the Father of the American Cavalry. Though only consisting of four regiments, he immediately began devising a new set of regulations and training for his men. As the Philadelphia Campaign continued, he alerted Washington to the British movements that resulted in the abortive Battle of the Clouds on Sept. 15. This saw Washington and Howe briefly meet near Malvern, PA before torrential rains halted the fighting. The following month, Pulaski played a role at the Battle of Germantown on Oct. 4. In the wake of the defeat, Washington withdrew to winter quarters at Valley Forge. As the army encamped, Pulaski unsuccessfully argued in favor of extending the campaign into the winter months. Continuing his work to reform the cavalry, his men were largely based around Trenton, NJ. While there, he aided Brigadier General Anthony Wayne in a successful engagement against the British at Haddonfield, NJ in February 1778. Despite Pulaskis performance and a commendation from Washington, the Poles imperious personality and poor command of English led to tensions with his American subordinates. This was reciprocated due to late wages and Washingtons denial of Pulaskis request to create a unit of lancers. As a result, Pulaski asked to be relieved of his post in March 1778. Pulaski Cavalry Legion Later in the month, Pulaski met with Major General Horatio Gates in Yorktown, VA and shared his idea of creating an independent cavalry and light infantry unit. With Gates aid, his concept was approved by Congress and he was permitted to raise a force of 68 lancers and 200 light infantry. Establishing his headquarters at Baltimore, MD, Pulaski began recruiting men for his Cavalry Legion. Conducting rigorous training through the summer, the unit was plagued by a lack of financial support from Congress. As a result, Pulaski spent his own money when necessary to outfit and equip his men. Ordered to southern New Jersey that fall, part of Pulaskis command was badly defeated by Captain Patrick Ferguson at Little Egg Harbor on Oct. 15. This saw the Poles men surprised as they suffered more than 30 killed before rallying. Riding north, the Legion wintered at Minisink. Increasingly unhappy, Pulaski indicated to Washington that he planned to return to Europe. Interceding, the American commande r convinced him to stay and in February 1779 the Legion received orders to move to Charleston, SC. In the South Arriving later that spring, Pulaski and his men were active in the defense of the city until receiving orders to march to Augusta, GA in early September. Rendezvousing with Brigadier General Lachlan McIntosh, the two commanders led their forces towards Savannah in advance of the main American army led by Major General Benjamin Lincoln. Reaching the city, Pulaski won several skirmishes and established contact with Vice Admiral Comte dEstaings French fleet which was operating offshore. Commencing the Siege of Savannah on September 16, the combined Franco-American forces assaulted the British lines on Oct. 9. In the course of the fighting, Pulaski was mortally wounded by grapeshot while leading a charge forward. Removed from the field, he was taken aboard the privateer Wasp which then sailed for Charleston. Two days later Pulaski died while at sea. Pulaskis heroic death made him a national hero and a large monument was later erected in his memory in Savannahs Monterey Square. Sources NPS: Count Casimir PulaskiPolish-American Center: Casimir PulaskiNNDB: Casimir Pulaski
Sunday, December 29, 2019
In French, the verbÃ obÃ ©irÃ means to obey. It is very similar to its counterpartÃ dÃ ©sobÃ ©irÃ (to disobey) and the two require the same verb conjugations. That means you can study both at the same time and make each a little easier to learn. Were going to studyÃ obÃ ©irÃ in this lesson and introduce you to its most basic conjugations. The Basic Conjugations ofÃ ObÃ ©ir French verb conjugations are required to transform the verb into things like the present tense am obeying and the past tense obeyed. To form them, you will add a variety of endings to the verb stem, much as we do in English. The catch with French is that theres a new ending for every subject pronoun within each tense. While that does mean you have more words to remember, it does become easier with each new verb you study.Ã ObÃ ©irÃ is aÃ regular -ir verb, which is one of the more common patterns, so that also makes memorization a little easier. To begin, well work with the indicative verb mood and the basic present, future, and imperfect past tenses. All you need to do is match the subject pronoun to the proper tense for you subject in the chart to learn which ending to use. For example, I am obeying isÃ jobÃ ©isÃ while we will obey isÃ nous obÃ ©irons. Present Future Imperfect j obis obirai obissais tu obis obiras obissais il obit obira obissait nous obissons obirons obissions vous obissez obirez obissiez ils obissent obiront obissaient The Present Participle of ObÃ ©ir As with most -ir verbs, you will need to add -ssant to obÃ ©ir to form the present participle. The result is the word obÃ ©issant. ObÃ ©ir in the Compound Past Tense For the past tense, you can choose between the imperfect or the passÃ © composÃ ©, which is one of the most often used compounds in French. To form it for obÃ ©ir, youll need the auxiliary verb avoir and the past participle obÃ ©i. For example, I obeyed is jai obÃ ©iÃ and we obeyed is nous avons obÃ ©i. Notice how you only need to conjugateÃ avoir in the present tense to match the subject and that the past participle always remains the same. More Simple Conjugations of ObÃ ©ir At times, you may also find a few other simple conjugations useful. For instance,Ã theÃ subjunctive allows you to imply some uncertainty to the action of obeying. Similarly, theÃ conditional is useful for an if...then situation where something else must happen first. There may also be times when youll encounter or useÃ theÃ passÃ © simpleÃ orÃ imperfect subjunctive. Subjunctive Conditional Pass Simple Imperfect Subjunctive j obisse obirais obis obisse tu obisses obirais obis obisses il obisse obirait obit obt nous obissions obirions obmes obissions vous obissiez obiriez obtes obissiez ils obissent obiraient obirent obissent For a verb likeÃ obÃ ©ir, theÃ imperative can be quite useful, especially when you want to command or forcefully request that someone Obey! The subject pronoun is not required, so you can simplify it to ObÃ ©is ! Imperative (tu) obis (nous) obissons (vous) obissez
Saturday, December 21, 2019
Essays on What Surprised about Accounting Essay The paper Ã¢â¬Å"What Surprised about Accounting?" is an Ã intriguing example of an essay on finance accounting. To me, Accounts have always meant numbers that represent incomes and expenditure on a personal level. In business, they have come to mean measurement of the results by means of profits earned over the quarter or a year and to disclose the values of accounts receivable and payable. They have also meant to reveal the cost of transactions and state of capital and investments.When I moved to investment in the stock market the numbers represented the growth or decline in the value of shares of stock based on sales performances, profits, and size of companies. As an ordinary person, accounting never played an important role for me except for the purposes of tax and bookkeeping.However, when I took the course in accounts, a whole new world opened up. I found that numbers speak as much as words do and are equally eloquent. They can be as exciting as a story and could both guide or deceive and it was important to learn about them in the same ways as we learn to handle the written word.I now know that an annual report is a spread out the analyzed journal for the benefit of shareholders and the general public. I had always preferred to go with a company that showed Ã¢â¬Å"profits,Ã¢â¬ believing that the higher profit represented better net income and better prospects. But I learned that these numbers could be engineered and did not represent the true or fair values or the real worth of the company.Ã The course showed me to appreciate the meaning of other numbers. The Accounting course taught me to look at the numbers with their own definition in the annual reports in order to find out facts behind them. Movements of these numbers always disclose the activities of the company in many ways and reflect on the behavioral pattern of is decision-makers. I found out that number talk in annual reports. By learning how to look at an annual report of a company, i ts balance sheet, income statement, retained earnings and cash flow statements, I found out surprisingly that net income is not the only number matters.Being an entrepreneur I learned early in life that there are risks in business but this course will teach me how to understand and handle it. I have learned to ask more direct questions instead of focusing only on tax saving. I am now also able to point out the questionable items, such as write-offs, investments, and interest and to understand their effects on accounts. Overall I have moved from the state of looking at accounts as a result of my efforts to using it as a tool for improving my own companyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance.Ã To quote my tutor, this accounting course will not be teaching us how to become an accountant, rather it will educate us about how to evaluate and analyze a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s report from the perspective of both the management as well as the investor.I look forward in anticipation of eventually learning topics t hat will include the relationships between accounting information and its effects on decision-making, the role of accounting on strategic issues, the development of accounting standards, and the unique roles of accounting within specific industries and sectors.
Friday, December 13, 2019
Product layout or assembly line is designed to handle products that are manufactured using specialized machines in an assembly line (Product lay-out).Ã Each line is designed to address specific requirements of a product line in a sequential manner.Ã There is a smooth flow of production (i. We will write a custom essay sample on Production Lay-outs or any similar topic only for you Order Now e. conveyor-supported) from one specialized machine to another which is desirable in mass production where demand is predictable while volumes are high.Ã This type of layout, therefore, is fitted in producing consumer products for a general market rather than producing for several segments of the market. The advantages of the product layout are its order and efficient processes that can lead to faster customer response and less demand on lead times.Ã It also promotes cheap labor because skill requirements are low that causes relaxation of high salaries.Ã Although this layout is efficient and easy to use, it is highly inflexible because a change in one assembly line can lead bottleneck in its production.Ã Further, in product development, acquiring a whole new set of machines and working area is necessary to address specific requirements of the product.Ã When demand is low, the assets can be underutilized. As it produces ships and airplanes, fixed position layout is a technique applied to vulnerable, hard-to-move and specialized products (Layout and Flow).Ã Factors of production (e.g. labor, machine, equipments and tools) are required to meet in a single production location to handle manufacturing tasks there. It is customary to leave machines in the site when not used to prevent breakage or damaged in addition to the costly transportation required for pull-out and getting back to the site. Further, to minimize the high capital in acquiring new machines, most companies are using contractual leases because their use of the machines is under limited time frame.Ã Its advantages are reduced movement of machines that aids in minimizing risk of damage or lost and continuity of processes because the need for re-planning is reduced as people meet in one place.Ã However, some of its disadvantages include are higher salaries as workers must have specific skills to finish the project, movement of people/ machines to site can be very costly and idle machines can have low utilization because they remain idle rather use for productive means when the production is at cease. Unlike fixed position, functional or process layout distinguish the work group into different departments that give rise to different and distinct workstations (Facility layout).Ã As production is intermittent and batched, functional layout is compatible in serving different market segments that have highly differentiated needs.Ã Compared to product layout, volumes are considerably low while the demand can fluctuate considerably from one period to another.Ã There is specialization in functional layout such as separation of men, women and childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s clothes in a department store. Machines in this layout are for general use while workers are knowledgeable on how to operate machines within their station.Ã The advantage of this layout is opposite the disadvantage of product layout (i.e. flexibility) while the vice versa is also true (i.e. functional layout is inefficient).Ã Disadvantages such as backtracking, bottlenecks and delays are common.Ã Further, the storage rooms for raw materials are huge while inventories of the finished products are low because they are immediately delivered to customers.Ã The critical issue to consider in this layout is to find the relationship of each station to machine centers to establish a more space-efficient design between them. To address the issue to space-efficiency between stations and machine centers, cellular layout is idealized to combine the advantages of product and functional layouts (i.e. efficiency and flexibility).Ã Cells represent a workstation that produces similar customer requirements.Ã A machine that cannot be allocated in space is strategically located between cells that require machine processing to create a point of use.Ã The usual design is that the assembly line is observed in producing components and parts while process layout take-over the relationship of each component-producing cell. With the use of information systems, locating cells and identifying idle machines can be easily carried out.Ã Resulting to substantial paperwork to maintain the cellular layout, workers can also operate machines within their departments like functional layout.Ã Its advantages are reduction in material handing and transit time, minimal set-up time, minimized work-in-progress, efficient use of human capital, control and automation.Ã On the other hand, it can have backlash such as absence of sufficient number of part stations to create cells, imbalanced cells, more training and strict allocation of workers and increased capital expenditure. Justification of the most appropriate layout Although challenging to establish, the current environment and production needs of Manychip should use cellular layout.Ã First, its plant and sales channels are located in developed economies where quality and expensive human resources are dwelling.Ã Second, it operates in a highly volatile demand that can be easily affected by environmental changes that flexibility is required to prevent cost associated with over-forecasting.Ã Third, it is carrying only six main memory chip products which likely have significant similarities in design and internal parts.Ã This will enable creation of cells because the number of stations is sufficient. Fourth, its operations in asset-intensive while its depreciation can significantly affect its profitability.Ã When cellular layout is adopted, assembly lines can efficiently produce component parts for the six product lines which will prevent idle machines.Ã On the other hand, functional layout are flexible that can be applied when orders are placed and products are ready for final assembly.Ã Fifth, the production of Manychip requires high lead times which can be minimized when applied with cellular manufacturing as components are ready to undergo assembly once order is in place. On having greater agility, Manychip will not loose quality systems because specific stations are under stand-by mode that can be called if random quality test is necessary.Ã With the consideration of the three conditions, approval of cellular layout is very necessary.Ã Different components can create cells, the administrative group can act like a quality group in which case a station can be brought up for them near their respective process interests and shipment in different geographical location can be addressed by timely delivery of products.Ã However, Manychip must consider that substantial funding is required to establish a hybrid strategy such as cellular manufacturing.Ã It must also monitor its product development programs to prevent dissolution of important cells. References Product lay-out (unknown). UWM. Available Ã [Accessed on 6 August 2007] Facility layout (unknown). SNC. Available from ;http://www.snc.edu/socsci/chair/333/bricks/Layout.html; [Accessed on 6 August 2007] Layout and Flow (1997). Pearsoned. Available [Accessed on 6 August 2007] ; ; ; How to cite Production Lay-outs, Essay examples
Thursday, December 5, 2019
The film Cinema Paradiso Essay In the film Cinema Paradiso, Toto, the main character, is a lost child without a father to provide a male role model. The story begins after Toto is informed of the death of his dearest friend, Alfredo. At this point, Toto is a mature man and a successful film director, having long ago left his home town, Giancaldo. Throughout the movie, however, Toto is a young boy with little parental support and direction. The young Toto develops a friendship with Alfredo, the film projectionist at Giancaldos only cinema, the Cinema Paradiso. Alfredo takes Toto under his supervision and eventually agrees to take him as an apprentice. As Toto becomes familiar with the inside of the projection booth, he also learns about life. Alfredo becomes the father Toto has never had. Cinema Paradiso demonstrates, through Totos relationship with Alfredo, that all children need parents to guide and support them to adulthood. The absence of parental guidance in Totos life has been a reoccurring theme throughout the film. While he goes to school all day, he spends his nights with Alfredo in the projection booth. Although Totos mother is still alive she is unable to provide him with the male role model that every small boy needs. It is as if her soul died with the disappearance of her husband, Totos father. Without someone to look up to, Toto, continually gets himself into trouble. This remains true in many families across the world, that without the ample support of both parents, many children find themselves lost. Totos father leaves Italy to fight in World War II when Toto is very young and has no recollection of his father. Alfredo knows that an adult male role model is missing in Totos life. In one scene, in which Toto, who works also as an altar boy, walks with the village priest in the intolerably hot summer sun, Alfredo passes them on a bicycle. Because Toto is too lazy to walk back to the village, he feigns a leg injury and hitches a ride behind Alfredo. As both of them ride back to Giancaldo, Toto asks Alfredo about his father. He was tall, thin, jolly, Alfredo tells him, with a nice moustache, like mine. I like how Alfredo compares his moustache to Totos fathers. Its as if Alfredo knows he can be of help and guidance to the young boys life. This could spark the concerns that Alfredo never had any children of his own to love. He goes on to say, I always tell my children, be careful how you choose your friends. You havent got any children, Toto retorts. Alfredo replies, When I do, Ill tell them. This scene illustrates Alfredos desire to become the male role model in Totos life. Instead of meaning his own children, Alfredo is referring to Toto. It also portrays Alfredo as a father by having Toto ride on the handle bars of the bicycle. Throughout the film, there are many scenes containing adult males that resemble Totos