Sunday, March 15, 2020

A Single Man (1964) by Christopher Isherwood

A Single Man (1964) by Christopher Isherwood Christopher Isherwood’s A Single Man (1962) is not Isherwood’s most popular or most lauded work, even after the recent Hollywood movie, starring Colin Firth Julianne Moore.  That this novel is one of the â€Å"lesser read† of Isherwood’s novels speaks volumes for his other works, because this novel is absolutely beautiful.  Edmund White, one of gay literature’s most respected and prominent authors, called A Single Man â€Å"one of the first and best models of the Gay Liberation movement† and it’s impossible to disagree. Isherwood himself said that this was the favorite of his nine novels, and any reader might imagine that it would be quite difficult to top this work in terms of emotional connectivity and social relevance.   George, the main character, is an English-born gay man, living and working as a literature professor in Southern California.  George is struggling to readjust to â€Å"single life† after the death of his long-time partner, Jim.  George is brilliant but self-conscious. He is determined to see the best in his pupils, yet knows few, if any, of his students will amount to anything.  His friends look to him as a revolutionary and a philosopher, but George feels he’s simply an above-par teacher, a physically healthy but noticeably aging man with little prospects for love, though he seems to find it when determined not to look for it. The language flows beautifully, even poetically, without seeming self-indulgent. The structure – like short bursts of thought – is easy to keep pace with and seems to function almost in tune with George’s day-to-day musings.  What’s for breakfast?  What’s happening on the way to work?   What am I saying to my students, but what do I hope they’re hearing?   This is not to say that the book is an â€Å"easy read.†Ã‚   In fact, it is emotionally and psychologically haunting.  George’s love for his deceased partner, his loyalty to a broken friend, and his struggle to control lustful emotions for a student are effortlessly expressed by Isherwood, and the tension is brilliantly constructed.  There is a twist ending which, had it not been built with such ingenuity and genius, could read as something quite clichà ©.  Fortunately, Isherwood gets his point across without having to sacrifice his (or the reader’s) imme rsion into the plot line.  This was a balancing act pulled off immaculately – truly impressive. One of the more disappointing elements of the book may be the result of the novel’s length.   George’s simple, sad life is so ordinary but has so much promise; our understanding of this is largely due to George’s internal monologue – his analysis of every action and emotion (typically literary-inspired).  It is easy to imagine that many readers would enjoy getting more of the back story between George and Jim and more of the relationship (little as it existed) between George and his student, Kenny.  Some might be disappointed by George’s kindness to Dorothy; indeed, readers have consistently expressed that they would not have been able, personally, to forgive such a transgression and betrayal. This is the only inconsistency in an otherwise wholly believable plot line, though, and will likely be subject to reader-response, so we can hardly call it an outright fault. The novel takes place in the course of one day, so the characterization is about as well-developed as it can be; the emotion of the novel, the desperation and sadness, are genuine and personal. The reader at times might feel exposed and even violated; sometimes frustrated and, at other times, quite hopeful.  Isherwood has an uncanny ability to direct the reader’s empathy so that she might see herself in George and thereby find herself to be disappointed in herself at times, proud of herself at other times. Ultimately, we all are left with the sense of knowing who George is and of accepting things as they are, and Isherwood’s point seems to be that this awareness is the only way to live a truly satisfied, if not happy, life.

Friday, February 28, 2020

MBA Marketing - Report 3 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

MBA Marketing - Report 3 - Essay Example Starbucks is known as the largest purchaser of the real coffee beans ( Starbucks has conceived its logo from Greek mythology. A woman like creature that dwells in deep seas or a mermaid with twin tail represents the logo of the company. Starbucks follows strong ethical standards for delivering the best coffee experience to its customers around the globe. The coffee beans are selected using the best of the selection techniques followed by high quality roasting techniques. The perfect blend of flavor and quality is what every cup of beverage at Starbucks deliver. The ambience of Starbucks is suitable for groups of friends and family who want to enjoy a casual drink with light snack. Those who want to spend some quiet time with themselves or a good book also choose their nook at Starbucks. Starbucks wants to establish itself as the top suppliers of coffee while ensuring that its aims and goals are not compromised. At Starbucks, the employees are treated with dignity and regarded as the heart of the company. The customers of Starbucks are treated in the best possible way so as to win their loyalty and satisfaction. Halevy (2011) suggested that for maintaining premium quality standards, the coffee is purchased from the finest of the farms and delivered to the customers after passing through the modern roasting and grounding methods. The company has global presence which it cherishes. Starbucks knows that its sole aim is to make profits while ensuring a satisfactory market share and customer response. Starbucks wishes to be known as an environmentally responsible company so it offers recyclable cups and active participation in community and social events, majority of which are targeted at environment safety. According to Bowhill (2008), PESTEL analysis gives the company a very clear idea of the external environment where it wishes to carry its operations so that it could clearly

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Contemporary Hero's Quest - Harry Potter Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Contemporary Hero's Quest - Harry Potter - Essay Example In spite of them being from the wizarding world just like Harry, their efforts unfortunately, cannot match that of Voldermort’s powers. They, therefore, give up and later earn his trust and further help and prepare him for the journey to the unknown world to seek help (Campbell, 2003). In the initiation, the hero experiences trials on the way that makes him weak and vulnerable to the evil forces. He undergoes a change where he discovers a new self with divine supernatural ability. The hero meets two goddesses; the first enlightens him of his new adventure while the second tries to mislead him to give up his quest. Through separation, the hero becomes aware of the new forbidden wizarding world. He enters a threshold-entrance to the wizard world of his destination. Transformation occurs after he crosses the threshold, moves into the world of darkness where he undergoes a rebirth and his old self-dies (Campbell, 2003). He eventually receives a prize he has longed for and reluctantly returns with his new found powers and wisdom from forbidden world. He encounters a chase by the evil forces on his way back, but he quickly adapts to his new self and survives the chase crosses the threshold back to the new world. The power that the hero returns with eventually saves the world from the evil forces (Campbell,

Friday, January 31, 2020

Effects of Divorce on Children Essay Example for Free

Effects of Divorce on Children Essay Although divorce is now allowed by law in some countries, it is still unhealthy for a family especially in the presence of a child. Due to the fact that they are still young, the children often do not understand why some couples need to separate and they respond in a variety of ways that parents should understand and deal with. When the divorce is settled, the children might wonder why their father or their mother is no longer around and this might be quite hard to explain to a young mind. This produces short and long term effects on the children and even sometimes causes teenagers to rebel against their parents causing more problems than there already is. Another issue regarding children and divorce is who will have custody of the children and alimony. Usually, the mother gets custody over the children while the father still provides financial support. Depending on the situation, the custody is being granted to the father. One problem about divorce is that couples think that the matter is only between them; failing to consider what effects it would have on their children. Little do they know that the changes that will occur once the divorce takes effect will have many negative effects on children. In a case to case basis, children might feel different because of the many changes that will take place once the divorce becomes effective such as changes in schedules and daily routines as well loss of contact with members of extended family (Parker). Children may also develop a fear that losing one parent will eventually lead to the lost of the other. The loss of attachment of a child to a parent may also lead to the loss of other secure relationships such as friends, siblings, neighbors and even pets. Children also, more often than not, are attached to their surroundings and divorce sometimes mean moving out or migrating which could prove unhealthy for the wellbeing of a child. A parent also has a tendency to create a dis-attachment between the child and the other parent which could prove to be a major predicament in the psychological health of the child (Parker). Many children tend to think that they are somehow the reason why their parents want to get divorced. Children often remember rough times that they had with their parents such as arguments, poor grades, getting into trouble, vices, etc. They start to think that the conflict came from them and they start to blame themselves. If this is the case, the parents should make clear that they are not responsible for the conflict and that both of the parents still love them. Explaining custody arrangements would also prove better to prepare the child and for a better understanding (Clandos). In some cases children try to bring their parents back together by either â€Å"acting out† in negative ways or trying â€Å"so good† so that his/her parents would think twice and reconsider about pursuing the divorce (Parker). As a reaction to a divorce, children especially teenagers show aggressive and defiant behavior. A problem here is that parents usually think that this is the normal behavior of the children instead of a reaction to problem. Parents should be keen observers and must be able to identify if the behavior is still normal. In such cases, children also show depression and parents must watch out for this kind of reactions (Parker). In one study, it has been proven that children have adapted to their parents divorce and have emerged as successful individuals. According to Constance Ahrons, the author of Were Still Family: What Grown Children Have to Say About Their Parents Divorce, although they are now adults, children who belonged in families that divorced emerged â€Å"stronger and wiser† having coped with â€Å"difficult times and experienced stressful family changes†. The research indicated that 79 percent feel that their parents decision to have divorce proved to be a good one. On the other hand, according to David Blankenhorn, founder of the Institute for American Values, â€Å"a good divorce is not nearly as important as having less divorce. No matter how good your divorce is, it is still a very painful experience for your child (Peterson). Many children who have grown up may have coped with the effects of divorce but still, a good number of children were affected and were not able to cope with it. It has been proven that children from divorced families are usually victims of abuse and exhibit more health, behavioral and emotional problems compared to children from intact families. Data also indicate that children from divorced families have more likely been associated with drugs, crime and even suicide (Fagan). According to a survey conducted by the Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics, fatherless children show a much greater risk of committing suicide while another study indicated that three out of four teenage suicide cases are from families where a parent is absent. Moreover, another study by Kalter and Rembar indicated from a sample of 144 children and adolescents that 63 percent showed subjective psychological problems such as anxiety, sadness, moodiness, phobias and depression while 56 percent had poor grades. Another 43 percent showed aggressive behavior towards their parents (Fatherless Homes Statistics). Children from divorced couples have been noted to perform poorly in academic subjects such as reading, spelling and math. They have also been identified to have higher drop-out rates and more often repeat a grade. It was also indicated that these children have a less likelihood of graduating from college. It was also noted that families that have gone through a divorce have experienced a 50 percent drop in their income levels resulting in poverty. Divorce also resulted in less religious worship which is associated with many positive outcomes such as better health, longer marriages and improved family life (Fagan). Divorce also affects the sexual behavior of children. Children from divorced families start to accept premarital sex and divorce. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicated that â€Å"African–American girls are 42 percent less likely to have sexual intercourse before age 18 if their biological father is present at home. For Hispanic–American girls, the stepfather’s presence increases the likelihood of sexual intercourse before age 18 by 72 percent† (Fagan). Robert Sampson, a professor of sociology at the University of Chicago, discovered that divorce rate is connected to the robbery rate in 171 cities in the United States that have a population of at least 100,000. Lower rate of divorce meant higher social control which in turn also results in lower crime rate. There is also a close line relating child abuse and crime rates. Higher divorce rates result in higher rates of child abuse but instead of curbing child abuse, remarriage only adds to it. Having a stepfather would most likely increase child abuse and data indicate that serious cases of abuse is much higher for stepchildren compared to children from whole families (Fagan). Likewise, a study by Kalter indicates that teenage and adult females that have been exposed to parental divorce resulted in lower self-esteem, heightened sexual activity, delinquent behavior and are unable to maintain a lasting heterosexual relationship. It was also stated that girls who grew without interaction from a father missed out on a key element. â€Å"The continuous sense of being valued and loved as a female seems an especially key element in the development of the conviction that one is indeed femininely lovable. Without this regular source of nourishment, a girls sense of being valued as a female does not seem to thrive† (Fatherless Homes Statistics). Children may suffer traumatic experiences in cases of divorce but steps can be taken to reduce these kinds of effects that divorce has on children. These steps are the following: â€Å"(1) be honest for the potential of emotional trauma on each of your kids; (2) allow your children to communicate openly; (3) offer your children choices, whenever possible, to increase their sense of power over their lives; (4) find support for yourself and your children; and (5) provide continuity† (Clandos). It is, likewise advised not to expose the children to any marital conflict. Talking about the spouses negative behavior should also be avoided while developing amicable relationship with the spouse is advisable for the sake of the children. Taking care of ones self will also help children adjust to the changes caused by the divorce. Moreover, discussing the separation with the children would also be helpful but one must always be mindful because what one says might affect the outlook of the child in a negative way (Clandos). Some changes in behavior may be observed from children that have been affected by the separation. Some children who are most of the time jolly and playful may become moody and may lose self-esteem. Sadness and moodiness may become excessive at times. Children also sometimes develop a fear of â€Å"clinginess† and may show anger outbursts (Clandos). Teen marriage account for a good percentage of divorce cases. Early marriages have been considered more unstable because of different factors such as the inability to support a family because of the absence of a good paying job having not finished college. It is estimated that one half of teen marriages with women ranging from 18 to 19 years of age result in divorce within 15 years time although the rate of divorce for women over 20 is also particularly high at around 33 percent. In cases of out-of -wedlock pregnancies, marrying before giving birth will increase paternal support because the male partner would have better access to the child and may provide better financial support even if there is a high risk that the marriage will result in an divorce (Seiler, 7). According to data from the National Center for Health Statistics, over time, the rate of divorce per 100 marriages have increased from three in 1870 to 30 in 1945 and 51 in 1998 (Fagan). Half of the marriages in the US end in divorce and from this data, one may state that people now no longer consider marriage as a strong binding force for a couple. Marriage now no longer provides a perception that it is permanent. Marriage is also no longer considered as a life-changing decision because of the availability of divorce. Dating games such as The Bachelor which sometimes end in marriage is proof enough that people no longer take marriage seriously. A divorce is caused by many factors such as common misunderstandings, financial difficulties, adultery, vices, and other irreconcilable differences. Many couples experience financial difficulties and this is one cause of divorce but prior to what most believe, financial problems are not the top cause of divorce. It only ranks fourth or fifth next to other factors that produce higher divorce rates, namely, â€Å"incompatibility, lack of emotional support, abuse and sexual problems†. According to Jan Andersen, associate professor at California State University in Sacramento, only 5 percent of divorce cases are caused by a couples financial difficulties (Weston). Other usual causes of divorce aside from financial problems are â€Å"lack of commitment to the marriage, lack of communication between spouses, infidelity, abandonment, alcohol addiction, substance abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, inability to manage or resolve conflict, personality differences or ‘irreconcilable differences’,differences in personal and career goals, different expectations about household tasks,different expectations about having or rearing children, interference from parents or in-laws, lack of maturity, intellectual incompatibility, sexual incompatibility, insistence of sticking to traditional roles and not allowing room for personal growth, falling out of love, religious conversion or religious beliefs, cultural and lifestyle differences, inability to deal with each other’s petty idiosyncrasies, mental instability or mental illness, criminal behavior and incarceration for crime† (Panse). Even if many countries legal ly accept divorce, there are still some countries that do not approve of divorce and most of these countries are against divorce because of religious beliefs. In biblical texts, adultery is often mentioned but nothing is clearly mentioned about divorce. Even theology scholars and pastors do not share the same views regarding biblical teachings about divorce. Christian scholars have different positions regarding the controversial issue. They argue that â€Å"(1) divorce is never permitted under any circumstances; (2) divorce is permissible under certain, specified circumstances; and (3) divorce is permissible under many circumstances† (House). The first argument supports that â€Å"marriage is lifelong and permanent† and divorce is against Gods standards and Christians are strictly prohibited from having divorce. Those who support the second argument that divorce is permissible under specific circumstances believe that divorce is not prohibited by biblical texts. They believe that one spouse commiting adultery means that a divorce can be allowed. Desertion is also being considered as a valid reason for divorce in this argument. On the other hand, the third view argues that divorce is allowed not just for conditions of adultery and desertion but for many other conditions as well (House). Generally speaking, divorce has many adverse effects on children. It affects their behavior, emotional and psychological health. Although some research studies indicate that children have been able to overcome the behavioral, emotional and psychological effects caused by divorce and were able to break out as successful individuals, many children still suffer from the harmful effects of divorce. As discussed, children from divorced families have a higher tendency to commit suicide, are more likely to commit crime and premarital sex as well as having poorer performance in academics. To sum it up, divorce does not provide any good effects on children and because of the many negative effects, it would be better if couples do not resort to divorce so as not to disregard the well-being of their children. It would be better off if couples just settle their differences for the sake of the children. It is also recommended that the government take steps to at least be able to lessen the cases of divorce if not eliminate it. On the other hand, the church should re-orient people the importance of marriage and deciding who to marry as simple as it has become today. The Church must make the people know that marriage is a life-changing decision. The status of marriage, particularly in the United States which is one of the countries with the highest divorce rates, is not strong. Works Cited Parker, Wayne. The Effects of Divorce on Children and How to Cope. accessed April 2, 2008 from, http://fatherhood. about. com/cs/divorceddads/a/divorcekids. htm Clandos, Rosemary, Kemp, Gina M. A. , Jaffe, Jaelline Ph. D. , Segal, Jeanne Ph. D. 28 September 2007. Coping with Divorce: Helping Your Child Cope with Separation or Divorce. accessed April 2, 2008 from, http://www. helpguide. org/mental/children_divorce. htm Peterson, Karen. Is Divorce a Bad Thing? Does it often leave broken children in its wake? Apparently not. 2004 June. accessed April 2, 2008 from, http://www. dimaggio. org/Eye- Openers/is_divorce_a_bad_thing. htm

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Southwest case analysis Essay -- essays research papers

Southwest has made an organization out of providing low-fare, short haul routes between city pairs. It has concentrated specifically on offering low-fares on all of its flights by maintaining its no frills attitude and high frequency of flights. This has afforded Southwest Airlines with the lowest cost structure in the industry. Southwest has created a niche for itself by flying a network of flights between smaller U.S. cities that average just one hour apart. This has differentiated them from their competition and avoided many clashes with industry giants who concentrate more on coast-to-coast flights. Kelleher, who is the president, chairman and CEO of Southwest Airlines is the companies single biggest asset and driving force. Kelleher runs the company very tightly and makes all the major decisions through a very centralized decision making process. This brings to light two potential problems. Firstly, how can a company such as Southwest airlines maintain such a centralized organi zation in the face of growth. Secondly, how is this company going to survive once Kelleher is no longer running it.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The problem that Southwest Airline is facing, is how are they going to survive in an aggressive industry without Kelleher’s leadership. It is a significant problem as the company is a symbol of Kelleher. However, unlike the company, Kelleher has a limited life-span and therefore the company will likely outlive him. This problem therefore requires some urgency as the succession of Kelleher could be the airlines biggest problem. The consequences of Kelleher leaving could be that the company loses its corporate identity. Employees may not respond well to new management. Customers may perceive that the company will not be run in the same manner and will therefore lose its niche market. This could also apply to stakeholders, who will see the departure of Kelleher as a serious decrease in the value of the company. Competitors may also try to take advantage of the company during this unstable period.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Kelleher is the face of Southwest airlines, even going as far as starring in most of their TV commercials. He also personally maintains an excellent relationship with a virtually all-union workforce. He has single handedly given Southwest the lowest employees turnover rate in the industry. Kelleher’s personal motiva... ...with the reality of the firm.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The implementation of this decision will require a marketing campaign that will be used to phase out Kelleher. The major resistance will be from the employees who will be fearful of new management. This will be addressed by the management team reinforcing the corporate strategies to the employees and reiterating the fact that Southwest airlines will remain the same company and the employees should expect things to stay the same. The ramifications of this plan is that power within Southwest could become to decentralized, therefore changing the core competencies of the firm.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In order for this plan to work it would require: Assembling a team to head the marketing campaign, restructuring of upper management, and decentralize decision making. The objective is to redefine and restructure the upper management in such a way that the loss of Kelleher is manageable. This plans effectiveness will be measured by employee and customer satisfaction throughout the transition. The project will be concluded when the new structure has been phased in and the reaction to Kelleher’s departure is under control.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Macbeth Essay

In Act 2 Scene 2, Lines 1 to 13 of Shakespeare’s â€Å"Macbeth†, Shakespeare questions the reader about who in truth is controlling Macbeth, Lady Macbeth or himself. Shakespeare also makes us ponder if Lady Macbeth has a healthy ambition, that she herself controls, or if her ambition is controlling her. The three main themes of Evil, Ambition, and Macbeth-The Victim of Manipulation are heightened through the use of Positive and Negative Sleep Motifs, expressed in a negative context. Also found in this selection are examples of Negative Diction, Religious Symbolism, and Animal Imagery which all develop the reader’s understanding of death, and develop the three key themes that circulate around the idea of death. Contrast is used to express the difference in power and confidence between Lady Macbeth and King Duncan’s attendants, and also to distinguish life and death, in the case of the attendants. Punctuation is used very effectively. Through the use of punctuation, one can visualize the emotions of Lady Macbeth. During the first few lines, each line is its own individual sentence, which ends in a period or colon. Simply by looking at the punctuation one can see that she is calm. Near the end of these lines, Lady Macbeth uses many commas, caesuras, and enjambments, she is out of order. Here one can sense just how nervous and frightened Lady Macbeth is. The final key device used in these lines is Foreshadowing. It gives the reader a glance at what will come out of Lady Macbeth and Macbeth’s decision to kill Duncan through the archetype of â€Å"fire†, which appears in line 2. Fire symbolizes light and warmth, yet at the same time symbolizes chaos and destruction. This can be related to their decision which will either make them or break them. Found throughout this passage are many literary devices, all of which are significant. However the most significant devices are Negative Diction, Religious Symbolism, and Sleep Motif. Religious Symbolism is immensely important in shaping Lady Macbeth’s character and sculpting the recurring themes, yet does not appear nearly as much as Negative Diction and Sleep Motif. One can find Lady Macbeth say â€Å"The doors are open†, Here she is literally talking about the doors to Duncan’s chamber, however one can interpret these doors as the doors of death. The doors are open for Duncan to walk through. This line can be related to Alexander Grahame Bell’s famous quote â€Å"As one door closes, another door opens. † Both Lady Macbeth’s and Mr. Bell’s quotes relate to death in a way; the door of life closes, and the door of death opens, waiting for us to walk through. Another example of Religious Symbolism is found in the lines â€Å"That death and nature do contend about them // Whether they live or die. This is symbolic of God and the Devil having a battle for the lives of the attendants, and later dueling for them to either be rewarded in Heaven or condemned to Hell. The image of God and the Devil gambling for the souls of the dead is expressed in the song â€Å"Spanish Train† by Chris De Burgh. This song has a similar religious meaning, as in both one can see a battle going on between God and the Devil for minor pawns or as one likes to say, humans. Another device, Sleep Motif, is used throughout these lines to portray the idea of sleep. In this piece one can find two main ideas: death and sleep. These two ideas are interconnected by a Religious meaning. One can see just how cleverly William Shakespeare uses the two devices of religious symbolism and sleep motif. Without one, the other, would not be as important. These two tools work hand in hand to develop the character of Lady Macbeth and the several themes throughout the play. Most of these sleep-orbiting words can be divided into three categories. The first category being what one usually consider sleep as, what we do each night in order to rest our body for the new day. This category can be referred to as the conscious form of sleep. Words that fall under this category are â€Å"good-night†, â€Å"snores†, â€Å"slept†, and â€Å"awaked†. These terms are the most positive sleep revolving words found in these lines. The next form of sleep is the sub-conscience form of sleep. This form of sleep is commonly known as â€Å"drunk† or â€Å"intoxicated†, and is usually found quite discouraging. â€Å"Drunk†, â€Å"Surfeited†, â€Å"Drugg’d†, and â€Å"Possets† fall under the sub-conscious form of sleep. The last category of sleep is the unconscious form. Words that fall under this category may seem depressing for non-believers of an afterlife or second life, but for believers they symbolize a new beginning. This form of sleep is tied in greatly with religious symbolism because it is rooted in the spiritual life. One does not quite know what happens after death, however there is a general belief that the spirit lives on, while the body lays under an eternal rest. The reader can see just how influential sleep is in this excerpt. One sees a sleeping Duncan, and later a deceased Duncan and also sees drunk attendants by Duncan’s side. In these few lines the reader envisions all three types of sleep. Although both Sleep Motifs and Religious Symbolisms play a huge role in shaping the themes of this scene, the most used device, and particularly important in these 13 lines is Negative Diction. Throughout, one sees words spoken wickedly by Lady Macbeth. She speaks wickedly about a wicked deed. Throughout the text one can see numerous examples of negative diction; â€Å"drunk†, â€Å"stern’st good-night†, â€Å"the owl that shriek’d the fatal bellman†, â€Å"surfeited†, â€Å"mock†, â€Å"drugg’d†, â€Å"death†, â€Å"die†, â€Å"confounds†, â€Å"afraid†, and â€Å"daggers†. Through Lady Macbeth’s vocabulary one can easily sense just how sinister Lady Macbeth is in both her words and actions. In this section of â€Å"Macbeth† one finds several literary tools that aid in conveying the character of Lady Macbeth and the three central themes. The most important devices used throughout this passage include Religious Symbolism, Sleep Motif, and Negative Diction. These three devices are interconnected as they revolve around the ideas of sleep and death. These three terms work together to shape the reader’s understanding of death and sleep which Shakespeare exemplifies to us through Lady Macbeth’s manipulation of Macbeth into the killing of the righteous King Duncan. The reader can relate what Shakespeare illustrates to the Human Condition. Everybody in life has ambitions, be it big or small, most people strive to help themselves, and through helping themselves, they help others around them. In few scenarios like in the case of Lady Macbeth, her foul ambitions overpower her and corrupt her to a point of sheer evil.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Polands Count Casimir Pulaski and His Role in the American Revolution

Count Casimir Pulaski was a noted Polish cavalry commander who saw action during conflicts in Poland and later served in the American Revolution. Early Life Born March 6, 1745, in  Warsaw, Poland, Casimir Pulaski was the son of Jozef and Marianna Pulaski. Schooled locally, Pulaski attended the college of Theatines in Warsaw but did not complete his education. The Advocatus of the Crown Tribunal and the Starosta of Warka, Pulaskis father was a man of influence and was able to obtain for his son the position of page to Carl Christian Joseph of Saxony, Duke of Courland in 1762. Living in the dukes household in Mitau, Pulaski and the remainder of the court were effectively kept captive by the Russians who held hegemony over the region. Returning home the following year, he received the title of starost of ZezuliÅ„ce. In 1764, Pulaski and his family supported the election of StanisÅ‚aw August Poniatowski as King and Grand Duke of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. War of the Bar Confederation By late 1767, the Pulaskis had become dissatisfied with Poniatowski who proved unable to curb Russian influence in the Commonwealth. Feeling that their rights were being threatened, they joined with other nobles in early 1768 and formed a confederation against the government. Meeting at Bar, Podolia, they formed the Bar Confederation and began military operations. Appointed as a cavalry commander, Pulaski began agitating among government forces and was able to secure some defections. On April 20, he won his first battle when he clashed with the enemy near PohoreÅ‚e and achieved another triumph at Starokostiantyniv three days later. Despite these initial successes, he was beaten on April 28 at Kaczanà ³wka.  Moving to Chmielnik in May, Pulaski garrisoned the town but was later compelled to withdraw when reinforcements for his command were beaten. On June 16, Pulaski was captured after attempting to hold the monastery in Berdyczà ³w. Taken by the Russians, they freed him on June 28 after forcing him to pledge that he would not play any further role in the war and that he would work to end the conflict. Returning to the Confederations army, Pulaski promptly renounced the pledge stating that it had been made under duress and therefore was not binding. Despite this, the fact that he had made the pledge reduced his popularity and led some to question whether he should be court-martialed. Resuming active duty in September 1768, he was able to escape the siege of Okopy Ã…Å¡wiÄ™tej Trà ³jcy early the following year. As 1768 progressed, Pulaski conducted a campaign in Lithuania in the hopes of inciting a larger rebellion against the Russians. Though these efforts proved ineffective, he succeeded in bringing 4,000 recruits back for the Confederation. Over the next year, Pulaski developed a reputation as one of the Confederations best field commanders. Continuing to campaign, he suffered a defeat at the Battle of Wlodawa on Sept. 15, 1769, and fell back to  Podkarpacie to rest and refit his men. As a result of his achievements, Pulaski received an appointment to the War Council in March 1771. Despite his skill, he proved difficult to work with and often preferred to operate independently rather than in concert with his allies. That fall, the Confederation commenced a plan to kidnap the king. Though initially resistant, Pulaski later agreed to the plan on the condition that Poniatowski was not harmed. Fall from Power Moving forward, the plot failed and those involved were discredited and the Confederation saw its international reputation damaged. Increasingly distancing himself from his allies, Pulaski spent the winter and spring of 1772 operating around CzÄ™stochowa. In May, he departed the Commonwealth and traveled to Silesia. While in Prussian territory, the Bar Confederation was finally defeated. Tried in absentia, Pulaski was later stripped of his titles and sentenced to death should he ever return to Poland. Seeking employment, he unsuccessfully attempted to obtain a commission in the French Army and later sought to create a Confederation unit during the Russo-Turkish War. Arriving in the Ottoman Empire, Pulaski made little progress before the Turks were defeated. Forced to flee, he departed for Marseilles.   Crossing the Mediterranean, Pulaski arrived in France where he was imprisoned for debts in 1775. After six weeks in prison, his friends secured his release. Coming to America In late summer 1776, Pulaski wrote to the leadership Poland and asked to be allowed to return home. Not receiving a reply, he began to discuss the possibility of serving in the American Revolution with his friend Claude-Carloman de Rulhià ¨re. Connected to the Marquis de Lafayette and Benjamin Franklin, Rulhià ¨re was able to arrange a meeting. This gathering went well and Franklin was highly impressed with the Polish cavalryman. As a result, the American envoy recommended Pulaski to General George Washington and provided a letter of introduction stating that the count was renowned throughout Europe for the courage and bravery he displayed in defense of his countrys freedom. Traveling to Nantes, Pulaski embarked aboard Massachusetts and sailed for America. Arriving at Marblehead, MA on July 23, 1777, he wrote to Washington and informed the American commander that I came here, where freedom is being defended, to serve it, and to live or die for it. Joining the Continental Army Riding south, Pulaski met Washington at the armys headquarters at Neshaminy Falls just north of Philadelphia, PA. Demonstrating his riding ability, he also argued the merits of a strong cavalry wing for the army. Though impressed, Washington lacked the power to give the Pole a commission and a result, Pulaski was forced to spend the next several weeks communicating with the Continental Congress as he worked to secure an official rank. During this time, he traveled with the army and on Sept. 11 was present for the Battle of Brandywine. As the engagement unfolded, he requested permission to take Washingtons bodyguard detachment to scout the American right. In doing so, he found that General Sir William Howe was attempting to flank Washingtons position. Later in the day, with the battle going poorly, Washington empowered Pulaski to gather available forces to cover the American retreat. Effective in this role, the Pole mounted a key charge which aided in holding back the British. In recognition of his efforts, Pulaski was made brigadier general of cavalry on Sept. 15. The first officer to oversee the Continental Armys horse, he became the Father of the American Cavalry. Though only consisting of four regiments, he immediately began devising a new set of regulations and training for his men. As the Philadelphia Campaign continued, he alerted Washington to the British movements that resulted in the abortive Battle of the Clouds on Sept. 15. This saw Washington and Howe briefly meet near Malvern, PA before torrential rains halted the fighting. The following month, Pulaski played a role at the Battle of Germantown on Oct. 4. In the wake of the defeat, Washington withdrew to winter quarters at Valley Forge. As the army encamped, Pulaski unsuccessfully argued in favor of extending the campaign into the winter months. Continuing his work to reform the cavalry, his men were largely based around Trenton, NJ. While there, he aided Brigadier General Anthony Wayne in a successful engagement against the British at Haddonfield, NJ in February 1778. Despite Pulaskis performance and a commendation from Washington, the Poles imperious personality and poor command of English led to tensions with his American subordinates. This was reciprocated due to late wages and Washingtons denial of Pulaskis request to create a unit of lancers. As a result, Pulaski asked to be relieved of his post in March 1778. Pulaski Cavalry Legion Later in the month, Pulaski met with Major General Horatio Gates in Yorktown, VA and shared his idea of creating an independent cavalry and light infantry unit. With Gates aid, his concept was approved by Congress and he was permitted to raise a force of 68 lancers and 200 light infantry. Establishing his headquarters at Baltimore, MD, Pulaski began recruiting men for his Cavalry Legion. Conducting rigorous training through the summer, the unit was plagued by a lack of financial support from Congress. As a result, Pulaski spent his own money when necessary to outfit and equip his men. Ordered to southern New Jersey that fall, part of Pulaskis command was badly defeated by Captain Patrick Ferguson at Little Egg Harbor on Oct. 15. This saw the Poles men surprised as they suffered more than 30 killed before rallying. Riding north, the Legion wintered at Minisink. Increasingly unhappy, Pulaski indicated to Washington that he planned to return to Europe. Interceding, the American commande r convinced him to stay and in February 1779 the Legion received orders to move to Charleston, SC. In the South Arriving later that spring, Pulaski and his men were active in the defense of the city until receiving orders to march to Augusta, GA in early September. Rendezvousing with Brigadier General Lachlan McIntosh, the two commanders led their forces towards Savannah in advance of the main American army led by Major General Benjamin Lincoln. Reaching the city, Pulaski won several skirmishes and established contact with Vice Admiral Comte dEstaings French fleet which was operating offshore. Commencing the Siege of Savannah on September 16, the combined Franco-American forces assaulted the British lines on Oct. 9. In the course of the fighting, Pulaski was mortally wounded by grapeshot while leading a charge forward. Removed from the field, he was taken aboard the privateer Wasp which then sailed for Charleston. Two days later Pulaski died while at sea. Pulaskis heroic death made him a national hero and a large monument was later erected in his memory in Savannahs Monterey Square. Sources NPS: Count Casimir PulaskiPolish-American Center: Casimir PulaskiNNDB: Casimir Pulaski