Monday, September 30, 2019

Final writing exercise Essay

There are three phases whereby each has a different crystal structure at three different temperatures. At room temperature (298K), Phase III is present whereby Cs3H(SeO4)2 has a crystal structure of a monoclinic with a space group of C2/m. At 400K, Phase II is present whereby Cs3H(SeO4)2 has a crystal structure of a monoclinic-A2/a symmetry. At 470K, Phase I is present whereby Cs3H(SeO4)2 has a crystal structure of a trigonal with a space group of R3-m. In Phase III, as we can see in Figure 2(a), the positioning of the tetrahedrons is parallel to the a-axis, and in between these SeO4 tetrahedrons are the hydrogen bonds. Looking at a 2dimensional perspective, we can also see that there is a translation movement of the SeO4 tetrahedrons along the a-axis; hence the symmetry operator would be a glide line parallel to a-axis. In a 3-dimensional perspective, we can see that Phase III has a 2-fold rotation axis and contains glide planes. In Phase II, from Figure 2(b), we can see that the positioning of the SeO4 tetrahedrons are along the approximate direction [310]. Observing the schematic of the crystal structure in Phase II, we can see that there is a vertical mirror line in between the SeO4 tetrahedrons. There is also an a-glide reflection vertically. In Phase I, from Figure 2(c), the positioning of SeO4 tetrahedron is similar to that of Phase II, however the difference is the crystal structure and the hydrogen bonding. Comparing both Phase II and Phase III crystal structures of the compound, Phase II contains two-fold screw axis, inversion center and a two-fold rotation axis, which is the sole reason for Phase II to be twice of that of Phase III in terms of geometrical  arrangement of hydrogen bonds. From the above analysis of the symmetry of the crystals structures in different phases, we can tell that Phase III has the most symmetry operators and hence achieving the highest crystal symmetry generating a low geometrical arrangement of hydrogen bonds. Due to the low geometrical arrangement of hydrogen bonds, the mobility of protons decreases giving the result of ferroelasticiy. The drastic change from superprotonic conductivity to ferroelasticty happens when there is a change from Phase II to Phase III. The major difference between theses 2 phases is the hydrogen bond arrangement. Paragraph 2 Under the optical microscope, we can observe that the polymorphic domains will alter at each phase transition to a different extent. We can see in phase III that the domains in the Cs3H(SeO4)2 crystal are made up of polydomains separated by two kinds of domain boundaries. The two kinds of domain boundaries are categorized as the planes of {311} and {11n}, where n is determined by the strain compatibility condition. The domains at the sides of each domain boundary are related to the reflective symmetry or the rotational symmetry on that boundary itself. Furthermore, we can observe that the angle between any domain and its neighboring domains is approximately 120 °, which is very close to the theoretical values calculated using the lattice parameters. As we move on from phase III to phase II, we can observe that the domain structure alters slightly by the phase transition of TII–III. Similarly, the reflective symmetry and rotational symmetry also changes at the same phase transition. However, the kinds of domain and domain boundary remain the same as those in phase III despite a change in domain pattern. This could be due to the slight change in alignment of hydrogen bonding between the SeO4 tetrahedrons when the existing hydrogen bonds were broken to form new weaker  ones. This might explains why their lattice parameters a and b do not really change appreciably. Compared to phase III previously, the angle between any domain and its neighboring domains in phase II is also approximately 120 ° and is justified by the theoretical values determined from the same equation we used for phase III. Hence, this suggest a slight change in the Cs3H(SeO4)2 crystal structure at the phase transition of TII–III. From phase II to phase I, the domain boundaries is observed to have disappear just before the curie temperature of the phase transition of TI–II and the crystal structure changes from  optically biaxial to optically uniaxial. This could be due to an external stress caused by the atomic rearrangement of the SeO4 tetrahedrons in the Cs3H(SeO4)2 crystal as a result of breaking the hydrogen bonds between them. Paragraph 3 Higher temperatures for most material will enable atoms to move to low energy sites, fitting into a perfect crystal symmetry. Cs3H(SeO4)2 however behaves differently. As the temperature increases (above 396K), its crystal symmetry decreases when it changes phase from III to II. The orientation of the hydrogen bond for phase II and III differs. For phase II, the orientation is along [310] and [3-10] direction whereas for phase III, it is parallel to the aaxis. As the transition from phase III to II occurs, the precursor of the superprotonic conductivity is observed. In order for movement of proton to occur, the breaking and then recombination of hydrogen bonds are required. For phase III, in order for the movement of one proton, the breaking of 2 hydrogen bonds is needed. The reason as to why 2 hydrogen bond is needed to be broken and recombined again is because for the movement of one proton to occur, it must break the hydrogen bond it resides in and then change its orientation, recombining at another site; the mirroring effect of opposite hydrogen bond is required to maintain the crystal symmetry i.e. to say that the another hydrogen bond parallel to the previous hydrogen bond site needs to be broken and recombined at other site parallel to the newly  recombined hydrogen bond. In this way, in phase III, the recombination of two hydrogen bonds is simultaneously needed for one proton transport. Phase II however, behaves differently. The movement of the proton is independent of the other protons at other hydrogen site. The crystal structure allows for this flexibility of the proton motion, which the superprotonic conduction takes place. The mechanism in which proton transportation occurs in the polymorphs is by the diffusion of protons through a hydrogen bond network, by the cleaving and formation of the hydrogen bonds. However, in certain phases, the cleavage and formation of the hydrogen bond might differ. The fuel cell works on the basis of the movement of protons. The movement of electrons should be disallowed as it would short circuit the fuel cell. Hence, a membrane is used to allow only the movement of protons across and not electrons and gases. On top of that, in order for a superprotonic effect to occur, the flexibility for proton motion must be allo wed. Hence, the lesser symmetrically patterned the phases the protons reside in, the higher this flexibility.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Centered Approach Essay

Family-Centered Approach ECE 313 Collaboration with Parents & Community Kathleen Thomas October 10, 2011 Instructor Cindy Hopper The economy has hit an all time low and has caused two parent households and single parent households into the workforce. As a result of this the parents are looking for childcare centers for their children. The main concern of these parents is will the centers help with the behavior and development of their children. These parents are looking for a place that is going to help with the development of their children’s self-help skills, empowerment, pro-social skills, self-esteem and attachment. These are behaviors that are not easily controlled and because the children spend the majority of their time in the centers the parents are hoping that together they can help develop desired behavior. That is why they are looking for a center that uses the family-centered approach. As the educator you have to develop a relationship with the children and their parents, the parents have to feel that they are going to be involved in everything that goes on in the center and that concerns their child. The educator has to sit down and learn about the child from the parent so that the educator will know what the parent expects from the educator and the center. The educator has to spend time with the child so that they can start to form a relationship. Family-centered has been defined as: Focus on the children within their families. The program includes the family as an integral, inseparable, part of the children’s education and socialization. Families along with their children are the program. (Gonzalez-Mena) p. . It is very important to acknowledge the children within their families because this way, you remember that you can not do anything without involving both of them. It is important that the educators know what the parents expectations are, Teaching children desired behavior may not be easy even when the educator and the parent are using the same methods. Potty training may require the educator and the parent using the same procedure which might be putting the child on the potty several times a day. If either of them changes the procedure this might cause the child to become confused and it may take longer to train her. To encourage desired behavior from children, parents and teachers need to have a strong relationship with the children. A warm affectionate bond and a positive emotional tone in the home and center will convince the children that their teachers and parents are on the same team and promote a spirit of cooperation and understanding. (Neifert, Marianne, MD) Helping a child develop self-esteem takes a lot of work because you can not do it by saying things that are not realistic. You can not say you are the prettiest girl in the world and think that this will help her self-esteem, as a parent you have to promote self assurances, self-help, competence and being â€Å"special. † Self-esteem rises if the individual is proud to perceive herself as being in possession of these traits. (Gonzalez-Mena) p. 205. Self-esteem has four dimensions: significance, competence, power and virtue. Teaching a child about self-esteem would be difficult because hopefully the child would feel loved and cared for by her parents and she would need to feel that you loved and cared for her too. However, if the child did not feel that she was important this is not something that you can make happen. You can try by showing her that you do care about her and that she is important. You could compliment her when she has achieved a goal that was set for her but you should not over praise her. To promote self-esteem you should never have a critical attitude, label a child or use name calling. Use encouragement instead of always praising them. When they have done something better than the last time make a comparison about how much better it was this time. Never compare your child’s performance to another child’s. Children will fail at some of the things that they try to do but this will be an experience for them. Have realistic expectations; be certain that your expectations for the children’s behavior match their age and developmental abilities. You have to be prepared to show them what it is that you want them to do. Practice the skills with them so that they will be able to do them alone. It is not impossible for a two year old to put on their coats but this two year old might not be ready, you will have to practice this over and over until the child is able to do it themselves. Competence, power and virtue are a part of self-esteem and these things might be easier to teach, being competent means that you have skills that you are very good at. If you were doing these skills on a daily basis you would someday be extremely good at that skill. Power is believing that you are in charge of something other than the paper clips and that you have control over the things that happen in your life. Virtue is being a good person and knowing right from wrong. Educators can take these four dimensions and use them to help a child learn how to feel good about themselves. Teaching pro-social skills you can model the children yourself, you have to set limits and tell them why you are setting the limits. The reason is because you don’t want them to get hurt. Have children work and play together so that they will cooperate better. When children are involved in a conflict it is your responsibility to resolve it with a solving approach. Always avoid punishment as a way of discipline. There are other things that you can do when trying to teach pro-social skills; as an educator you should sincerely acknowledge children’s pro-social behavior by recognizing when they are doing things together (ex: two children have started cleaning up the art area) your response could be â€Å"that is real cooperation†. You should explain reasons for rules and help the children understand the effects of their behavior on others. This type of inductive discipline seems to encourage child to be kind and helpful. (Berman, K. L. , M. M. Torres, C. E. Domitrovich, J. A. An educator can encourage good behavior by using a reward system. Choose a behavior you would like to change. There might be a child in your classroom who will not sit still in his seat; you can tell him that if he sits still that you will reward him for staying in his seat. You can tell him that he has to earn five tokens by staying in his seat when you are teaching the class and that five tokens will get him ice cream at lunchtime. It does not have to be tokens; you might have a chart with everyone’s name on it and at the end of the week if they have receive a star for everyday they will receive extra cookies at snack time. Share your reward system with the parents and see if that helps them out with behavior problems at home.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Australia And China Relations

As the saying goes â€Å"No man can live alone†, so is a nation. In this era of globalization, no nation can meet the demands of the new world order without the help of other nation. The International Community is composed of various nations, sharing ideas and lending hand to establish progress for a better future. Australia which is a member of the United Nations and other international organizations also shares its ideas and resources to other nations while gaining its interests for the good of its people. In addition, building friendly relations with other nations plays an essential role in furthering plans for the future of its constituents. Nations to befriend with does not necessarily require similarities in advocacy or type of government. It is necessary that an issue that interests both nations will be properly addressed. Moreover, according to Alan Oxley, interests shape relationship. In the case of Australia, building ties with China, which is a rising superpower, is possible because of some interests that bind both of them. According to Grattan’s and Nicholson’s article, the Prime Minister wanted to establish a personal relationship with Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao and President Hu Jintao. In addition, according to Toy and Grattan, building personal ties with leaders could not be hard because of Prime Minister Kevin Rudd’s skill and intelligence on China’s tradition and political culture and his experience as Australian diplomat in China. According to Grattan and Nicholson, the relationship between Australia and China is one of common economic and national interest. Some of these interests that Prime Minister Kevin Rudd wants to pursue with China are free trade and bilateral agreement, the issue on climate change and to encourage Chinese people to become full partners in the global international order and establish a long- term partnership with China. On economic issue, the Prime Minister is boosting for free- trade and bilateral agreement. Through these, a wider business opportunity will open to both countries. According to Alan Oxley, Chair of the APEC Centre at Monash University, Australia is a major supplier of resources for China. Moreover, according to Grattan and Nicholson, Australia is known of its coal resources which are needed by China as a source of energy. On the other hand, free trade will open China for Australian investors because of its growing market in the pensions and superannuation industry, as stated by Toy and Grattan in their article. The free- trade agreement will also push to finalize the Doha deal which is an advantage for Australia. Some barriers in the business transactions between the two countries will also be addressed to further a smooth flow of business. According to Grattan’s and Nicholson’s article, Dr. Malcolm Cook stated that China, on its part, is also interested because of its interest in the bid to buy into Rio Tinto to keep down the costs of resources from Australia. Through free trade agreement, both countries will be able to meet their interests. Under the free- trade agreement, China may as well be granted with investment rights. Through investment rights, according to Trade Minister Simon Crean, China will be allowed to invest up to $1 billion at a time without having to seek approval from the Foreign Investment review Board (FIRB). However, the proposed changes could raise questions because of the recent increase in Chinese equity investments and takeovers, especially in the resources sector, at a time when Beijing has accumulated $US1. 7 trillion in foreign exchange reserves (cited from Rudd mat give investment rights). On the contrary, Prime Minister Kevin Rudd’s moves have raised questions from among observers like former Trade Adviser to the Chinese government, John McDonnell. John McDonnell said â€Å"The Prime Minister needs to clarify the nature of his connections with the Chinese Government and how they are likely to affect Australian interests and policies. † Moreover, John McDonnell has raised two things that the government and Prime Minister shall do to drive- away suspicions in the relationship of Australia and China. The first is the need to dispel the idea that the Prime Ministers or his ministers have behind-the scenes connections with Chinese interests. This is brought by the obscurity of government’s relationship with Australia- Beijing Technology. According to Mc Donnell, the nature of the business is not clarified to the public. The second is the need to clarify the extent of the government and the Prime Minister’s willingness to deal with an essentially corrupt, and grace-and-favour Chinese regime. According to McDonnell; â€Å"China remains a country without a fundamental legal structure. Its constitution amounts to a set of directives from the central government to the various organs and agencies as to how policy will be conducted. There are no guarantees of the sort embodied in the US constitution. It looks more like a set of cabinet than a basic law. ’ Moreover, Rowan Callick asserted in John McDonnell’s article, that party cadres who have been trained abroad and who have taken over state-owned enterprises. There is doubt that Australia, a democratic government, might not go well in business with a nation where Communism type of government is adhered. State-ownership may still be the core objective of China despite it’s participation in international affairs. In addition, John McDonnell stated that Government shall make it clear that if it does not get what it believes is a reasonable outcome from the FTA negotiations, then it will rely on the multilateral system to implement its policy objectives. This makes it clear that John McDonnell doubts that Australia will benefit from the free trade agreement. Momentarily, Prime Minister criticized the human right policy over Tibetans of China in his speech delivered in mandarin in Peking University. Some have given applause while others raised their eyebrows. According to Stuart Harris, former head of the Department of Foreign Affairs, Prime Minister Kevin Rudd’s speech was very clever while some says that it passed the test with considerable tact and skill. However, many also criticized his bold move by criticizing and at the same time building free trade with China. According to Dr. Malcolm Cook, Prime Minister Kevin Rudd could best influence China if the criticism was done behind closed doors. In the article of Toy and Grattan, China asserted that Tibetans are bestowed with wonderful human rights protection and the issue on Tibet is purely an internal affair that does not welcome any interference form foreign countries. In defense, Prime Minister Kevin Rudd stressed that his speech is an advice from a true friend. The Prime Minister said that a true friend can be a partner who sees beyond immediate benefit to a broader and firm basis for continuing, profound and sincere friendship. This issue raised the doubts and suspicion on the foreign policy of Prime Minister by entering a friendly relation and at the same time criticizing the nations’ policy. Nevertheless, the criticism did not weaken the plan of the two countries of becoming a long- term partner. Furthermore, the very essential factor that binds the two countries in entering into a friendly relation is the issue on climate change. It can be noted that Australia is playing a major role in addressing the issue on Global Warming. According to Grattan’s and Nicholson’s article, Prime Minister Kevin Rudd wanted to persuade the Chinese to play a bigger part on climate change. This would give China a crucial role in the coming international negotiations for a new agreement on climate change. According to Climate Change Minister Penny Wong, Australia and China have a common interest in finding lower carbon solution for coal which means developing a carbon capture and storage mechanism. Moreover, both leaders committed o wok more closely on climate change, particularly in the area of the development of low emission technology (cited from Rudd again raises Tibet issue with China). Notably, Australia has a significant coal export in China for the latter’s energy needs and coal is one among the elements that causes greenhouse effects causing climate change. In finding a solution to climate change, China plays an important role. As agreed, Australia has committed to fund $20 million in finding solutions for climate change. The funding will cover the researches in putting up a clean coal technology and collaboration on carbon sequestration. This will lower carbon emissions and at the same time address the energy needs of the world. Significantly, Australia and China will develop the world’s largest solar city through Australia’s funding. Both countries will also monitor the health of the Yellow, Pearl and Da Ling rivers in China. These are the plans of Prime Minister Kevin Rudd that he is proposing to China (cited from Australia to aid China’s solar city plan). According to Prime Minister Kevin Rudd, Australia have come a long way and can go further. Building friendly relation with China will not only benefit both countries on economy because investors from both countries will have business opportunity. The most essential effect of the relation would be the goal of both countries on issue on climate change. At present, all nations of the world are aware of the climate change but have no significant actions have been taken yet to deal with the problem. However, through the partnership of Australia and China, the global problem will be given solution which will effectively benefit not just Australians and Chinese but also all people of the world.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Situational Awareness Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Situational Awareness - Essay Example 05). SA has been widely referenced in the world of aviation due to the fact that it plays a highly prominent role in operations taking place in flights. Even though the concept is considered to be very effectively in the domain of aviation, for safely operating aircraft functions for flights; it is no wonder to account for the fact that the very concept has been misemployed in its destined area. What is not appropriate is that the use of SA is most of the time based on an understanding which bases more on intuitive underpinnings than on objective analysis and implementation. Moreover, a commonly acceptable definition of SA is also scarce. As such the aviation psychologists have put all their attention on the mental links of SA owing to the fact that for tasks operations should undertake are of highly cognitive nature. Henceforth, the aviation psychologists have attempted to work out the cognitive areas that comprise the very components of SA. In other words, the aviation psychologist s have attempted to investigate the cognitive behavior of human practice that can lead to a successful understanding of SA. The empirical studies conducted in the past have revealed high correlation of memory usage in the practice of SA. (Sohn, & Doane, p. 461, 2004). Ways to Detect SA There are several ways by which ways to detect SA can be acquired. One such area is the analysis of the role played by memory in SA. Here, this single is divisible into many a subheads which tell us of the importance of understanding the role of memory in SA. Such relevant content as systems, hazards, or tasks are put to processing and ultimately stored in memory. Henceforth, the degree of accuracy of SA relies on memory in a way that the information coming in is synchronized into the cohesive interpretation and forecast of aircraft status. Due to the importance that memory components hold in SA, a number of researchers have concentrated on the role of memory in a number of differential tasks like air traffic control to detect ways of SA (Sohn, & Doane, p. 461, 2004). The basic step toward understanding SA and ways to detect it is to understand the construct of SA itself. According to Sohn, and Doane (p. 461, 2004), information processing view is the one step on which the entire understanding of SA can be employed. Here the authors quote Endsley's view that defines three levels of SA with respect to the components of processes that are cognitively perceivable. On this model the first level of understanding the construct takes into consideration the perceiving of the elements present in the environment. These elements can are other aircraft, status of the system being used, the terrain, and lights of warning. The second level of understanding the construct of SA to detect the ways to prevent any haphazard observation of any action is to integer information which is "a process of activating long-term memory (LTM) knowledge structures in order to organize the perceived situation elements into

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Vehicle Pay-As-You-Go Insurance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 8250 words

Vehicle Pay-As-You-Go Insurance - Essay Example These may include efficiency, equity, safety and environmental protection. This essay describes and appraises the Pay As You Go system. I wish to deliver an excellent and understanding piece of report. After the completion of my Businesses Information Technology degree I wish to do future studies in Software Engineering. This would allow me to focus on software development and go beyond programming to include such things as eliciting customers' requirements, and designing and testing software. I would learn how to assess customer needs and develop usable software that meets those needs. I am keen on how companies market their product which could help me when I have to do this at work. I will put in all the knowledge and skills that I have learnt throughout the course of my studies to my project. I would also like to learn more about marketing and how this chosen system works. By the end of the project I am hoping to gain a good level of understanding of how the systems work and the reasons for such system. In order to write this report I researched into different materials, which included books, journals articles, various publications and web resources. I widely used the internet which was essential as the time was limited and plenty of information can be extracted from various websites. Certain web resources are not reliable but I managed to avoid them by choosing only those which were official or had references given with the data. This allowed for enough accuracy in order to write this article. Some books and journal articles were also available on the internet and they were looked into. The books and journals usually provide with accurate information and data that is helpful in writing an essay. Apart from these, there were case studies and research findings also that I read up and reviewed. Such resources are very reliable thus I made use of them. Background Car insurance premiums can take a bite out of your household budget. There are many tips available to reduce your car insurance costs but the fact remains you are required by law to carry a minimum amount of coverage if you own and drive a car. While most people are aware that car insurance providers offer discounts for people who travel fewer miles than their high mileage partners many people are not aware that some insurance provide

The anthropology of food and meaning in Slav cultures Research Paper

The anthropology of food and meaning in Slav cultures - Research Paper Example As a matter of fact, anthropologists have made food a separate variable while doing research on cultures, in order to assess the way of living of the different societies in the past and at present. Slavic Culture: As there are a huge number of countries in this world, so is the vast number of cultures they share. Considering different regions of the world, the Slavic culture is a prominent one and indeed the largest in Europe. The ‘Great Migration’ is what tells us about the evolution of the Slavs first in the first millennium. Before the mid-fifth century, there was not any kind of data (literary or archaeological) available on the Slav culture. By the sixth century, the archaeological verifications tell us that the Slav moved in the Central Europe. All the Slavs share parallel cultures and languages. The Slav are majorly divided into three main groups, geographically; East, West and South Slavs. The Slavs have some historical association with the Turks, and that can be witnessed in the geographic and tribal names, and noticeably the cuisines. Usually the Slavs used to live aside the woods and jungles which can get them food and obviously a place for a shelter (Randall Mack and Surina). The Slavs majorly relied on food item gathered from hunting, fishing, collecting berries, different nuts, mushrooms and other available food item in the forest to complement their diet. After the World War II, the many of the Russian territories were becoming home for the salavic expatriates and the nomads. This drastic increase in the population greatly affected their cuisine across Russia. However, the Slav identity has been affected at present due to migration, and population disruption. A great part of the Slavic culture is affected by the European cultural influence, specifically, the Scandinavia, Germany and some part of East Europe. There are other abundant significant cultures that particularly affected the food culture of Russia. Famous for its intake of f ood and their perspective on how they see food as an essential element of their life, there are certain issues which underlie from the evolution of this culture and are still present (Randall Mack and Surina). Thesis Statement: For a very long period, Russia was locked from top to bottom, it had no influence of the outside world and Russia had a Slavic food culture, but with globalization and modernization it has lost that food culture and traditions of eating, transforming the entire food culture of Russia or the Slavic culture. Discussion: The study of human and human culture across the space is termed as ‘anthropology’. It is the study of human and their cultures from the past to present (American Anthropological Association). The anthropology of food is the study of human culture focusing specifically on its food and society, the relationship between the food and society with its cultural context and sometimes within a cross-cultural context (Wilk) It is basically t he analysis of food in a culture, why people in different cultures are only confined to a limited variety of food and have certain restrictions which are not only because of the nutritional point of view that they avoid certain things but because of their culture, religion, historical background, economical or geographical factors and their financial capability (Wilk). In this paper, we will only focus on the food culture of Russia. Its evolution, what it used to be and what it is at the present. It is witnessed that the Russian food culture

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Improving Student Academic Behavior Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Improving Student Academic Behavior - Essay Example Student performance goes beyond the mere student achievement in examinations and school tests to encompass the overall achievement of character strengths, particularly the specific dispositions, attributes, and skills that are linked with effective learning ability. Successful students are those that are not only knowledgeable in a variety of subject areas, but also those that have acquired the learning skills that will enable them fit into their respective roles in the future of societies; for that matter, improving student performance is more than just merely improving their test scores. With the great concern among educators and schools regarding improving student performance, numerous efforts have been directed towards establishing the most effective ways of improving student behavior, which has been highlighted as a core factor in education development. Student behavior has been found to be the most critical factor in improving student performance, study habits, time management, as well as personal/student accountability; parent-teacher relationships; on the other hand, are essential in encouraging positive student behavior among students generally.The relationship between parents and teachers has often been framed in terms of parental involvement or engagement in policy matters regarding planning for the provision as well as development of education throughout the world; even so, parental engagement is a new concept in the history of educational development, and an ambiguous one for that matter.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

The XX band, album XX review Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

The XX band, album XX review - Article Example The album received positive reviews and has just released a second album, â€Å"The Co- Exist.† (Rodgers). History of the XX band The xx band is an indie pop band formed in 2008 based in London. It released their debut album in 2009. The band has four members, Romey Madley Croft, Oliver Sim, Jamie Smith better known as Jamie xx and Baria Qureshi who left the band in 2009 after the first album. The band members studied music together at the Elliot School and have known each other for years. The band was ranked highly in the best of 2009 lists. It was number 1 on the Guardian list and 2nd on the NME. In 2010 the band won the Mercury prize for their debut album. They have just released their second album â€Å"Co-Exist† on 10th September 2012. The name of the band XX is not the chromosomes or kisses but more seen as mysterious marks. Their eponymous debut album in term of music and lyrics has traces of Pixies and Aaliyah. Caius Pawson founder of the Young Turks label an im print of XL signed them up after listening to them perform at various gigs and became their manager. Creativity Making of the Album XX Romney Madley Croft is the singer cum guitarist of the band. She is sweet natured and soft spoken. She is incapable of uttering a line that does not have a ‘come on’. She adores Mariah Carey. In the songs â€Å"Islands† and Basis Space† her voice is pleasant and has a soft vibe. She is reflective about a subject that is something not often associated with teenagers. Oliver Sim, the bassist, feels up through his responsive vocals and ever present bass. His voice is papery and has a sticking point. Oliver is obsessed by Aaliyah and this can be seen in their music. Romy and Sim may not have the best voices but they sing together because they have something to say. They provide plenty of friction to their music and bring a lot of excitement to the music. Baria Qureishi was the guitarist cum keyboard player and responsible for dr ums, but left the band after the band’s debut album under unclear circumstances (Rodgers). Jamie Smith known as â€Å"Jamie xx† is the band’s producer. He created a sound world where the simplest chord change was full of emotion. The first production acquainted listeners to music that expressed the guitar. He is a producer who is adventurous and open minded compared to other young producers. He is hungry to incorporate all manners of sounds and approaches to music. The band’s music is pop music about sex and interpersonal relationships. They are not fashionistas but definitely their influence is potent. They are strongly influenced by R&B. The XX band makes electronic edged music that is ghostly, low key and enigmatic as their curious name. The connections to the different types of music they adore gives their music an atmosphere of simplicity. The group caused a stir during their gigs in London before being signed up by Young Turks (Rodgers). The debut a lbum â€Å"XX† The eponymous debut album was self titled â€Å"xx†. The first album filled a void that most music lovers did not know exist. Their music was new where several currents of music flowed. xx the song was like a whispered secret. It incorporated hushed voices through the process of subtraction with a daring sense of space. Croft’s voice in the first album used gently picked lines that were

Monday, September 23, 2019

How do you pronounce your name Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

How do you pronounce your name - Essay Example When I was younger, though, I never knew the kind of impact my name would have on me. In elementary school, I was not very fond of my name. I always complained to myself how one day I would change it to Heaven. It would be easier for people to pronounce, and I would be free of hearing that overused question on a daily basis. As I grew older and matured, the views I had on my name changed drastically. I began to like the uniqueness of my name, and whenever the pause came to read my name, I was more than happy to correct the pronunciation. As I grew older and I began to fully understand why my mother would give me this name, I realized that what I had was more than just I name. I had a story to go with it. Born two months early and weighing only two pounds, it was more than a blessing for me to be alive, especially when the doctor was sure that either my mom or I was going to die during the birth. My mom, happy that we both survived, decided to name me Heavyn’le. Given the miracle that occurred the day of my birth, nothing else seemed to fit. My mom also said, â€Å"My name is so common, and I just wish that someone would have spelled my name a little different.† Therefore, to add to the uniqueness of my name, she had to add some spice to it, to make it â€Å"different.† Not only is my name unique, but it has a story behind it that has finally made me proud to bear the name that my mother blessed me with. Now that I am older, I have come to realize that my name helped make me who I am. I am able to understand why I was named Heavyn’le, and that it had not been picked on a whim but for a reason - life. I am not afraid to be different. I am constantly being told how pretty my name is, and I have even been asked if my name could be used in a short story.  

Sunday, September 22, 2019

The book Swallows and Amazons by Arthur Ransome Essay Example for Free

The book Swallows and Amazons by Arthur Ransome Essay I have read the book Swallows and Amazons by Arthur Ransome. It is a childrens adventure story in the period between the two world wars featuring the Walker and Blackett children, their families, and other inhabitants of the area around the Lake District in the northeast of England. A childrens camping and sailing story, it grasps the mind of the readers firmly although it is not fantasy and has a background of reality, through the interesting leisure activities and fascinating plot. The story begins with four Walkers, John, Susan, Titty and Roger, who are on holiday, borrowing a dinghy called the Swallow and going camping on a lake island, which they name Wild Cat Island. But they are soon challenged by the Blackett girls Nancy and Peggy (real names Ruth and Margaret), on the boat Amazon, who claim ownership to the island. After a short quarrel, they decide to form an alliance against the unfriendly houseboat man and ex-pirate, Captain Flint (in reality, James Turner) who is also the Amazons uncle. After a brief battle to decide the flagship, they attack Captain Flint and claim victory. Captain Flint becomes friendly again and the younger Swallows help Mr. Turner find his stolen treasure. The story ends with the departure of the Swallows back home. The part I found most interesting in this book is Titty, the third of the Walkers and able-seaman, staying alone in the island for the night while the others went on an expedition and capturing the Amazon. First, I was very impressed at her choice to guard the island. Most people, especially children, do not like being left alone and would have normally chosen to be in the thick of the action with the others going up the Amazon River, but such was her love of the island that she wanted to guard it in the dark. She also imagined herself as Robinson Crusoe stranded on a desert island but in the opposite of what the real Robinson Crusoe thinks in the book, she thought that he ought to have wished to stay on it forever. I was totally captured by her imaginativeness and love of nature. Secondly, although she was fooled unawares by the Amazons, she did not lose her head but stayed calm and in a superb action of dynamic circulation of mind, succeeded in capturing the Amazon by counter-using their plan and finally won victory for the Swallows, whom, had it not been for her, would have lost the battle. The art of keeping a cool head in an emergency is one of the most important virtues of life and I admire her very much for that. This talent is something I have always lacked, not that I ever found myself in a real emergency, and I must try to raise the ability of calm and dynamic thinking to overturn my inferior situation. In reading this whole book, I found the character that resembles me most Roger, the youngest of the Swallows. He is still a young boy of seven and unlike the others, who are quite mature for their young ages, has childish characters such as fearing the dark although he tries to fill in with his older siblings as adventurous youths. I have wondered when I would become all that brave and fearless like my father and other male adults. I have come to a conclusion that I must try to make change within myself, not only think that I deserve change for nothing. Roger took part in all the adventures and in the end, I might say that he achieved quite an improvement in his level of maturity through his adventures by participating and trying to really enjoy them, abandoning his traces of childishness. I hope that I will have a chance soon to grow up from the inside, which I shall embrace with open arms. I think what this book is trying to tell readers is that the flow of life, however seemingly rough and irregular, always has a constantness about it and that if you will something a lot and try hard, everything shall end well through the victory of the Swallows against the Amazons, the allied children triumphing above Captain Flint, everybody becoming friends, and everything resolving itself well. This, I think, can be applied in the same way with personal relationships. I have seen the Swallows and the Amazons finally become friends, and Mr. Turner making it up again with his nieces. It is the same in my daily life: I have a little crack in my relations with my parents due to my misbehaviors, but we always find back our good relationships. Reading this book will have effects on my future life. It has helped me to try to become a more mature person and to have more hope in things, but not to ask for good things without trying. This was also quite a new kind of book to me. Up to now, I had not yet read a realistic adventure story like this book. Also, the subjects of camping and sailing were quite new to me and I had difficulties understanding the specific vocabulary about tents and boats. But this experience of reading Swallows and Amazons, I believe, will help me very much in reading other books about similar topics. I enjoyed very much this book and would like to read the later books in the series also. *I wrote this book report in January 2009 after having read the book Swallows and Amazons by Arthur Ransome (1930).

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Organisational Structure And Cross Cultural Management Icici Bank Commerce Essay

Organisational Structure And Cross Cultural Management Icici Bank Commerce Essay This paper explores the linkage between organizational structure and cross-cultural management. It suggests that a fluid and continuously evolving structure enables effective cross-cultural management. In support of this, the paper reports on the experience of the second largest bank in India and the largest private sector bank in India by market capitalization. The Bank has a network of 2,509 branches and 5,808 ATMs in India, and has a presence in 19 countries, including India. ICICI Bank offers a wide range of banking products and financial services to corporate and retail customers through a variety of delivery channels and specialization subsidiaries and affiliates in the areas of investment banking, life and non-life insurance, venture capital and asset management. ICICI Bank is also the largest issuer of credit cards in India. ICICI Banks shares are listed on the stock exchanges at  BSE,  NSE,  Kolkata  and Vadodara (formerly Baroda)  ; its  ADRs trade on the  New York Stock Exchange  (NYSE). The Bank is expanding in overseas markets and has the largest international balance sheet among Indian banks. ICICI Bank now has wholly owned subsidiaries, branches and representatives offices in 19 countries, including an offshore unit in Mumbai. This includes wholly owned subsidiaries in Canada, Russia and the UK  offshore banking units in Bahrain and Singapore, an advisory branch in Dubai, branches in Belgium, Hong Kong and Sri Lanka, and representative offices in Bangladesh, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, South Africa, Thailand, the United Arab Emirates and USA. Overseas, the Bank is targeting the NRI (Non-Resident Indian) population in particular. ICICI reported a 1.15% rise in net profit to  Indian rupee1,014.21 crore on a 1.29% increase in total income to  Indian rupee9,712.31 crore in Q2 September 2008 over Q2 September 2007. The banks  CASA ratio  increased to 30% in 2008 from 25% in 2007. ICICI Bank is one of the  Big Four Banks  of India, along with  State Bank of India,  Punjab National Bank  and  Canara Bank   its main competitors. Introduction International business houses are increasingly operating with multicultural work forces. One key to competitive advantage for these business houses is effective cross-cultural management. Even conservative business houses such as traditional banks are finding that the thrust of competition requires them to manage diversity in their workforces. An example of one such traditional bank is ICICI Bank. ICICI Banks performance and aspirations are underpinned by a strong organizational culture of dynamism, meritocracy, excellence in execution and high standards of professional integrity that have helped us become an industry leader. The bank runs a leadership development program which aims to build leadership talent within the organization. The program attempts to tap into the potential of employees and develop them into global leaders. It has also extended its role beyond economic growth concerns to directly participate in the pursuit of human development.   CROSS- CULTURE MANAGEMENT Smiths Work View Smith (ICICI MD) and his original team did well. ICICI prospered. Their 8-8 banking service set a new benchmark in the industry BUT its grown too vast. Smith is surrounded by people who do not present the true status of the crippling retail dissatisfaction Smith has become risk averse and has appointed people whove been around him for years, as heads of divisions. They do not have the same drive and enthusiasm as Smith and hence the stagnation. The need of the hour is to expand infrastructure, bring in younger people in the top management (people in 30s and early 40s). and ofcourse until then, ICICI can be avoided. Work culture at ICICI Bank It is a tech-savvy, non-hierarchical, work environment where early responsibility and independent decision-making enable each employee to reach his/her potential. Coupled with this is a strong performance management system that has built a meritocracy where high performing-high potential individuals are duly rewarded. Employees Satisfaction Even during recession ICICI Bank did not cut back on employees But instead announced a policy of No promotion No bonus but no attrition too!! This policy is serving two purposes for ICICI bank, cutting down employee cost and employee retention. Employees also feel that as an employer the bank extends a lot of authority along with justified accountability. Employees perceived the working culture at ICICI bank to be very collaborative in nature. It can be owed to the fact that the bank is highly segmented with a lot of overlapping and mostly distinct roles and responsibilities. The Employees also considered that ICICI bank offers them with a lot of financial benefits ranging from your family health insurance to your kids school donations. But certain concerns in terms of Lack of time for fulfilling social responsibilities And more sales oriented culture are there. Dress Code ICICI Bank would issue dress to be worn by all Progamme Participants. This dress, as laid down, would be worn for all classes and other organised activities. Till the time the participants are issued with the dress they would abide by the following dress code: (a) Gentlemen (i) Formal office trousers and shirts with a tie. Most acceptable colours for trousers would be black, brown, blue and grey. Preferable pastel colours for shirts. (ii) Suits for formal occasions. (iii) Formal footwear (iv) Well groomed. (b) Ladies (i) Silk or cotton (starched) sari (ii) Formal western wear (formal trousers/skirts with a top or a jacket) or salwar kameez. (iii) Formal footwear. (iv) Well groomed. Role Of Women In ICICI Bank Chanda Kochhar knew nothing about retail banking when she took over ICICI Banks fledgling retail operations in 1998 at the age of 36. That made Citibank and others think ICICI was only doing a small flirtation, she says, and they underestimated the growth in the market. They also underestimated this smart, assertive woman, known for her colorful saris and carefully matched jewelry. Today ICICI, Indias second-largest and fastest-growing bank, is the market leader in retail banking, with more than 15 million customers, accounting for more than a third of Indias total retail credit. And Kochhar No. 37 on this years list of the worlds most powerful businesswomen added corporate banking to her portfolio in April and is a leading candidate to become managing director and chief executive of the Mumbai bank when the job becomes vacant at the end of 2008. That a woman should achieve such success in a male-dominated industry, in an economy where women often play subservient roles, might be a surprise at any other Indian bank. But  ICICI  (Charts) has made a name for itself by recognizing female talent. Three of the five members of the banks executive board are women, as are 13 of its 40 top managers and one of Kochhars two rivals for the chief executive job Shikha Sharma, the 47-year-old managing director of ICICI Prudential. Once dubbed the petticoat brigade by Mumbais chauvinistic banking fraternity, these highly competitive women have helped build a business known for its aggressive, risk-taking attitude and its growth from a sleepy, bureaucratic development institution into Indias most diversified and customer-oriented bank. Almost all the leaders we have picked have succeeded, and most have been women, says K.V. Smith, ICICIs CEO, who has been responsible for empowering them. Kalpana Morparia, a lawyer and the other joint managing director, retires next May. Her peers at other banks say she has been the backbone of ICICI for the past ten years, looking after the raising of funds and the regulatory environment. She says she stayed at ICICI, when she could have earned far more elsewhere, because the empowerment gives an entrepreneurial framework, where you have all the support systems. Sharma, another early achiever and fast learner, admits she is fiercely competitive. When she was 33 she headed ICICIs side of a securities joint venture with J.P. Morgan, initially knowing little about markets. That led to a two-year stint at Morgan, after which she ran ICICIs corporate planning department and started its retail banking operation. In 2000, knowing nothing about insurance, she set up the joint venture with Britains Prudential, which is restricted by government policy to a 26% equity stake and has only a minimal management presence. That leaves Sharma in charge of Indias largest private-sector insurance company, with 12.5% of the market. She says women are good at succeeding without prior experience because they have smaller egos [than men], and its easier for me to say, Hey, I know nothing about this. Technology Department Very aggressive Bank in terms of adopting the best practices, technology and takng business for a young entrant a very good opportunity to learn and grow Extreme work pressures makes one to learn to respond quickly and efficiently and absorb pressure a trait useful for the future Senior management backing for new initiatves Fairly transperant Performance Appraisal system Open to changes in department for employees, allowing employees to grow Very professional, Good place to work It need only to sell product, brand awareness is high, very strong in systems, minimum paperwork, good training opportunities, opportunities given to do different things other than the regular job. Excellent place to learn marketing and strategy. Unearthly working hours usual. Less involvement from HR regarding welfare of employees, some established managers tend to push down people who dont perform instead of hand holding them, demotions in roles very common, even if you are a good performer. Senior Management care more for your employees, they are more than just another email id! Find ways to understand whats happening on the field, its very different from whatever impression you have! Flexibility in terms of changing job profiles; power and authority assigned at each level is very motivating; employees feel very powerful in ICICI as compared with other organisations. Literature Review The author reviews the theoretical and empirical literature to examine the traditional perception that the following trade-off exists between economic efficiency and stability in the banking system: a competitive banking system is more efficient and therefore important to growth, but market power is necessary for stability in the banking system. That this trade-off exists is not clear. Market power can have positive implications for efficiency, and the potentially negative implications of competition on stability may be manageable through prudential regulation. Neither extreme (perfect competition nor monopoly) is likely ideal. Rather, it may be optimal to facilitate an environment that promotes competitive behaviour (contestability), thereby minimizing the potential costs of market power while realizing benefits from any residual that remains. It can be very difficult to assess the contestability of a banking market. Recent work suggests that the number of banks and the degree of co ncentration are not, in themselves, sufficient indicators of contestability. Other factors play a strong role, including regulatory policies that promote competition, a well-developed financial system, the effects of branch networks, and the effect and uptake of technological advancements. Classical views of organizational structure have emphasized the durable arrangements within an organization. Jackson Morgan (1982) define organizational structure in line with the classical view as: the relatively enduring allocation of work roles and administrative mechanisms that creates a pattern of inter-related work activities, and allows the organization to conduct, coordinate, and control its work activities. This definition of organizational structure with the caveat that work arrangements need not always be relatively enduring. Early writers on the subject, including Taylor (1911), Fayol (1930), and Weber (Gerth Mills, 1958), had stipulated an ideal-type of organizational structure for all situations. In the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s, the one best form fits all view was replaced by the contingency approach. A contingency perspective such as that of Lorsch Morse (1974) prescribes that an alignment should exist between structure, task, technology, the environment, and people. This approach takes into account that structures can be flexible and responsive to change. Contingency theorists such as Duncan (1977), Lawrence Lorsch (1967), Burns Stalker (1961), Minzberg (1979), Miles Snow (1978), and Galbraith (1973) recommended that organizational structure should be either organic or mechanistic depending on the nature of the external environment. A stable external environment called for a mechanistic structure, while a turbulent environment required an organic structure one flexible enough to evol ve. The power of the contingency theory was validated in two countries from the non-English speaking world by Boseman Simonetti (1975), indicating that non-traditional notions of structure apply in a variety of cultural contexts. In the past twenty-five years several researchers have made a case for viewing organizational structure in terms of transient features rather than durable ones. Duncans work (1977) was among the earliest in this genre. Duncan advocated a bifurcated initiation and implementation structure for creative organizations. It then became possible to envisage structures that were bifurcated in other ways, such as those that have organic and bureaucratic structures existing conterminously as described by Peterson (1981). Here, the segment of the organization that engages in creative activities is separated from the rest of the organization, which is essentially bureaucratic. Just as creativity exerted a pressure for organizations to adopt transient structures, lately, knowledge generation and transfer in high information-intensity and velocity contexts have likewise exerted pressures for looser structures. Miles Snow (1995) have argued for flexible networked structures for such organizations. In their literature review piece, Child McGrath (2001) too note how continuously changing structures, are de rigour in knowledge based organizations. Coulson-Thomas (1991) has predicted that corporations dealing with complex operations would opt for flatter and more fluid organizational structures that can develop into networks, as well as have greater flexibility and responsiveness to customer needs. This would be accompanied by a management approach which pushes organizational hierarchy to individuals, who require access to expertise and specialists. Pepper (1995) advanced an even more dynamic perspective on structure, which incorporated such elements as working relationships, actual experiences of members, and interpretations of occurrences. Pepper suggested that structure should be treated like a document that is authored by organizational members. Weick (1995) also postulated a dynamic view of structure. Weick talked about enacting organizations which are a function of organizational members preferences. He observed, Organizing is a continuous flow of movement that people try to co-ordinate with a continuous flow of input. Taking off from the notion of enactment, is that of inverted firms. Anderson, Finkelstein, Quinn (1996) have recommended that hierarchies be dispensed with in certain contexts; instead, structures be organised in the form of patterns tailored to specific needs. Also closely related to the notion of enactment is that of improvisation. Improvisation connotes flexibility of form, an area a few contemporary researchers are currently discussing. Volberda (1999) holds that the extent of flexibility of a firms structure should be aligned to the extent of turbulence prevalent in its environment. Additionally, a firm may on the whole be averagely flexible but have both a unit that is extremely flexible and a unit that is extremely rigid, functioning within it. Gold Hirshfeld (2005) have demonstrated how the principles of improvisation underlying jazz music can be used to promote strategic renewal within organizations. McHugh Wheeler (1995) described a particularly fluid structure called holonic network. This is a set of companies that acts integrated and organically; it is constantly re-configured to manage each business opportunity a customer presents. Each company within the network provides a different process capability and is called a Holon. This capacity for frequent re-configuring has been termed more recently by Eisenhardt Galunic (2001) as architectural innovation. Here, the different capabilities of an organization, including its structural components are re-combined in various ways to enhance performance. Table I: Consider how our view of structure has changed over time I From durable structures to flexible structures Theorist Essence of Theory Period Weber, Taylor, Fayol One best form of structure that is largely unvarying, durable and bureaucratic. Focus was on establishing order and maintaining predictability Early 20th Century Duncan, Lawrence Lorsch, Burns Stalker, Minzberg, Miles Snow, and Galbraith Structure should not be consistently unvarying. A stable environment necessitates a mechanistic structure, while a turbulent environment calls for an organic and flexible structure. The type of structure adopted should be contingent on the nature of the environment. 1960s 1970s Duncan, Peterson A creative organization should have certain elements of structure that are flexible. 1970s early 1980s Child McGrath, Miles Snow A knowledge generation and transfer organization should have a flexible structure. 1990s early 2000s Table II: Consider how our view of structure has changed over time II Different imperatives for flexible structures Theorist Essence of Theory Period Coulson-Thomas Complex, high-performance organizations require flat, fluid, flexible structures that enable responsiveness to customer needs. These structures can develop into networks. 1991 McHugh Wheeler Complex, high-performance organizations require a fluid structure that enables re-configuration suited to each business opportunity that arises. These structures can develop into colonic networks. 1995 Pepper High-performance organizations require flexible structures capable of incorporating such features as actual experiences of members, etc. These structures enable employee participation in and ownership of organizational processes 1995 Weick High-performance organizations require flexible structures that enable employees to enact their work-related preferences. These structures promote efficiency and employee participation. 1995 Anderson, Finkelstein, Quinn High-performance organizations sometimes require inverted structures that enable the removal of hierarchies. These structures can be tailored to specific needs. 1996 Volberda High-performance organizations should be internally differentiated so that units have varying extents of flexibility. This promotes efficiency and alignment with the environments demand. 1999 Eisenhardt Galunic High-performance organizations should emphasise the architectural innovation capability of its structure. This enhances performance. 2001 Gold Hirschfield High-performance organizations require structures that are capable of improvisation. This enables strategic renewal. 2005 Looking at organizational structure in terms of a historical perspective is useful, since it underscores the fact that its components do not have to be durable. Thus due to several imperatives, organizational structures are assuming flexible forms. Cross-cultural management can be a further reason why organizations should adopt flexible structures with transient features. That personnel can have preferences for structural forms that reflect their cultural heritage is indicated by the INSEAD study of Stevens (cited in Hofstede, 1991). In this study, MBA students from Great Britain, France and Germany were presented with a caselet about and interpersonal problem in a corporation. The students were requested to present a solution that involved re-engineering the structure. The interpersonal problem was that two department heads could not see eye to eye. The British students diagnosed the problem as being one of poor communication between the department heads. The problem could be resolved, according to the British students, by providing training in interpersonal skills to the feuding department heads. The French students suggested that the problem be referred one level up to the president of the corporation. The German students recommended that there should be greater clarity regarding the roles, responsibilities, and spheres of activity of the two department heads. These roles, etc. the German students opined, should be described and specified unambiguously. Stevens study specifically suggests that flexible structural forms may be appropriate in cross-cultural management contexts. Changs (2002) paper written notes that culture has implications for job design. Thus, managers from individualistic ethnic cultures will value personal accomplishments. Meanwhile managers from collectivist cultures would place a premium on working harmoniously with others. The challenge is to design structures so that managers from both types of cultures can work productively together. We present here the experience of ICICI Bank as indicative that a fluid, flexible structure enables cross-cultural management. The fluid, flexible structure at ICICI Banks enabled managers from different cultures (collectivist and individualistic, high power-distance and low power-distance, etc.) to work synergistically with each other. Flexible structures obviate the sense that a structure or work pattern is being imposed by one cultural group on others. It provides a mechanism whereby culturally different work patterns can be reconciled in a meaningful fashion. (Reconciliation is a term used by Trompenaars (1993) for the process he developed to work through the tensions created by cultural differences.) RESEARCH EFFORT This study constitutes an exploratory effort. Its purpose is to examine how a fluid, flexible organizational structure facilitates cross-cultural management. Huberman Miles (1994) have recommended that when a deeper understanding of management contexts is sought, qualitative research designs may be appropriate. Similarly, organization theorists like Marjoribanks (2000) and Vogel (1996) have deliberately used fine-grained case studies to capture how institutional diffusion occurs. The present study employs qualitative methods and a substantive case study to observe and report the co-evolution of a fluid, flexible organizational structure and cross-cultural management practices. ICICI Bank has a vast and a well-connected network of branches offering incomparable banking and other financial services to its customers. You need not look far for an  ICICI bank branch  and can get all the relevant information regarding the address, phone number and other information about the nearest branch of ICICI bank in your area using an online tool of branch locator to locate an ICICI bank branch. The ICICI bank has established its branches in easily accessible market places across India enabling its customers to avail a variety of retail banking products offered by the bank.   The ICICI bank branches are spread throughout India and the world having  1,488 branches both in India and  18  countries. The customer care executives at branches are willing to help in order to provide assistance in all sorts of bank related products and services. The current office timings of ICICI bank branches are 8AM-8PM which has been proposed to 9AM-6PM. The bank has spread its reach far across the globe with branches in  Canada, USA, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Sri Lanka. It has established its presence in places such as Kuala Lumpur, San Francisco, San Jose, New York, California  etc. As the bank is playing an important role in countrys Political, Socio- economic, Technological environment as it provides many facilities to many customers throughout many countries and future plans are to expand the branches across the borders to meet the pace of Globalization and contribute to maximum Optimum utilization of resources in a well structured manner. ICICI Bankà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Background in brief In 1955, The Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India Limited (ICICI) was incorporated at the initiative of World Bank, the Government of India and representatives of Indian industry, with the objective of creating a development financial institution for providing medium-term and long-term project financing to Indian businesses. In 1994, ICICI established Banking Corporation as a banking subsidiary. Formerly known as Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India, ICICI Banking Corporation was later renamed as ICICI Bank Limited. ICICI founded a separate legal entity, ICICI Bank, to undertake normal banking operations taking deposits, credit cards, car loans etc. In 2001, ICICI acquired  Bank of Madura  (est. 1943). Bank of Madura was a  Chettiar  bank, and had acquired  Chettinad Mercantile Bank  (est. 1933) and  Illanji Bank  (established 1904) in the 1960s. In 2002, The Boards of Directors of ICICI and ICICI Bank approved the reverse merger of ICICI,  ICICI Personal Financial Services Limited  and  ICICI Capital Services Limited, into ICICI Bank. After receiving all necessary regulatory approvals, ICICI integrated the groups financing and banking operations, both wholesale and retail, into a single entity. At the same time, ICICI started its international expansion by opening representative offices in  New York  and London. In India, ICICI Bank bought the  Shimla  and  Darjeeling  branches that  Standard Chartered Bank  had inherited when it acquired  Grindlays Bank. In 2003, ICICI opened subsidiaries in Canada and the United Kingdom (UK), and in the UK it established an alliance with Lloyds TSB. It also opened an Offshore Banking Unit (OBU) in Singapore and representative offices in Dubai and Shanghai. In 2004, ICICI opened a representative office in Bangladesh to tap the extensive trade between that country, India and South Africa. In 2005, ICICI acquired Investitsionno-Kreditny Bank (IKB), a Russia bank with about US$4mn in assets, head office in  Balabanovo  in the  Kaluga  region, and with a branch in  Moscow. ICICI renamed the bank ICICI Bank Eurasia. Also, ICICI established a branch in  Dubai  International Financial Centre and in  Hong Kong. In 2006, ICICI Bank UK opened a branch in  Antwerp, in Belgium. ICICI opened representative offices in  Bangkok,  Jakarta, and  Kuala Lumpur. In 2007, ICICI amalgamated Sangli Bank, which was headquartered in  Sangli, in  Maharashtra  State, and which had 158 branches in Maharashtra and another 31 in  Karnataka  State. Sangli Bank had been founded in 1916 and was particularly strong in rural areas. With respect to the international sphere, ICICI also received permission from the government of  Qatar  to open a branch in  Doha. Also, ICICI Bank Eurasia opened a second branch, this time in St. Petersburg. In 2008, The  US Federal Reserve  permitted ICICI to convert its representative office in  New York  into a branch. ICICI also established a branch in Frankfurt. In 2009, ICICI made huge changes in its organization like elimination of loss making department and re-stretching outsourced staff or renegotiate their charges in consequent to the recession. In addition to this, ICICI adopted a massive approach aims for cost control and cost cutting. In consequent of it, compensation to staff was not increased and no bonus declared for 2008-09. On 23 May ICICI Bank announced that it would merge with  Bank of Rajasthan  through a share-swap in a non-cash deal that values the Bank of Rajasthan at about  Indian rupee3,000 crore. ICICI announced that the merger expand ICICI Banks branch network by 25%. On 18h October 2010, ICICI will inaugurate I-Express, an instant cross-border money transfer option for Non-Resident Indians (NRIs). This service will be available through the ICICI Banks select partners in the  Gulf Cooperation Council. ICICI Bank is Indias second-largest bank with total assets of Rs. 3,634.00 billion (US$ 81 billion) at March 31, 2010 and profit after tax Rs. 40.25 billion (US$ 896 million) for the year ended March 31, 2010. The Bank has a network of 2,509 branches and 5,808 ATMs in India, and has a presence in 19 countries, including India. ICICI Bank offers a wide range of banking products and financial services to corporate and retail customers through a variety of delivery channels and through its specialised subsidiaries in the areas of investment banking, life and non-life insurance, venture capital and asset management. The Bank currently has subsidiaries in the United Kingdom, Russia and Canada, branches in United States, Singapore, Bahrain, Hong Kong, Sri Lanka, Qatar and Dubai International Finance Centre and representative offices in United Arab Emirates, China, South Africa, Bangladesh, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. Our UK subsidiary has established branches in Belgium and Germany.à ‚   ICICI Banks equity shares are listed in India on Bombay Stock Exchange and the National Stock Exchange of India Limited and its American Depositary Receipts (ADRs) are listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). Controversies over timeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ ICICI Bank has been in focus in recent years because of alleged harassment of customers by its recovery agents. Listed below are some of the related news links: ICICI Bank was fined  Indian rupee55 lakh for hiring goons (known coloquially as goondas) to recover a loan. Recovery agents had ,allegedly, forcibly dragged out a youth (who was not even the borrower) from the car, beaten him up with iron rods and left him bleeding as they drove away with the vehicle. We hold ICICI Bank guilty of the grossest kind of deficiency in service and unfair trade practice for breach of terms of contract of hire-purchase/loan agreement by seizing the vehicle illegally,No civilised society governed by the rule of law can brook such kind of conduct said Justice Kaleem, who was born in Laddhawala, Muzaffarnagar is the president of the consumer commission. [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18] Four ICICI loan employees arrested on theft charges in Punjab. [19] ICICI Bank told to pay  Indian rupee1 lakh as compensation for using unlawful recovery methods. [20] RBI warns ICICI Bank for coercive methods to recover loans. [21] ICICI Bank drives customer to suicide Four men including an employee of ICICI Bank booked under sections 452, 306, 506 (II) and 34 of IPC for abetting suicide. According to the suicide note they advised him, If you cannot repay the bank loan, sell off your wife, your kids, yourself, sell everything at your home. Even then if you cannot n

Friday, September 20, 2019

Waste allowance of muna building

Waste allowance of muna building Introduction Waste is any substance or object(s) the holder discards or intends to discard. Any material which is perceived to have no further use is waste.Waste becomes more a product because of the cost and location of aggregates and other new materials and also because of the cost of disposal. These two factors drive the definition of waste. If you have easy availability of landfill and large quantities of aggregate close at hand you will not get a premium on the use of recycled materials. Concept of construction waste Construction waste consists of unwanted material produced directly or incidentally by the construction or industries. This includes building materials such as insulation, nails, electrical wiring, and rebar. Much building waste is made up of materials such as bricks, concrete and wood damaged or unused for various reasons during construction. Observational research has shown that this can be as high as 10 to 15% of the materials that go into a building, a much higher percentage than the 2.5-5% usually assumed by quantity surveyors. Efficacy of waste allowance The following benefits can be achieved if estimators use waste allowance while pricing:- Ø Cost savings Ø Financial benefits Ø Financial benefits Ø Identify the actual cost. Ø Uses materials efficiently Ø Uses materials efficiently Ø Ensure that waste issues are considered and addressed Ø Comparing against estimates and targets (Reducing_Material_Wastage_in_Construction.3b4442f9.4711.pdf,http://www. ) Encouraging Prevention of Construction Waste In general the environmental advantages of using reclaimed or recycled materials are greatest if the material or product is used in the highest grade application possible. For example one should process demolition rubble and use it as aggregate for a new concrete rather than just using it for fill. Waste arriving methods in construction materials Flooring:- cutting of floor tiles to fit room layouts Ceilings:- cutting of ceiling tiles and fixing to fit room layouts Insulations: -cutting of insulation boards to fit openings Tiling: -cutting of floor and wall tiles to suit design and rooms shapes Paving::-cutting of paving slabs to fit layout To reduce waste on construction sites certain general recommendations may be made, e.g. Ø Need to critically assess the quantities ordered Ø Review the ordering procedures Ø Manage deliveries Ø Protect materials during storage Ø Only take the material that is needed Ø Return surplus materials to stores Ø Protect materials at the work-site The Different Waste Types Visible Waste What you see in the skip. Process Waste Badly designed procedures or working practices that lead to inefficiency, ineffectiveness and errors. Waiting and searching for someone/something/information is a big invisible waste. Transaction Waste Transactions are people-to-people activities such as communications, excessive planning/discussions and delayed project handovers. The idea of lost time is an invisible waste. The waste produced by the construction industry is not just a burden on the environment and the ecological system, but it is also a huge cost to the industry itself. For example: Ø Transport cost of excess material to site Ø Cleaning and collection of excess material and waste Ø Transport of waste from the building site Ø Waste disposal costs Ø Better project planning: planning of material requirements (exact quantities), planning of material deliveries to site and planning of material usage Ø Organized waste disposal Ø Increasing the level of recycling of construction waste Solving the problems of waste disposaltouches many vendors involved in the construction project: the owner, designers, contractors, etc. It starts from making it a concern already at initial stages of the project planning and continuing it through the design phase. Contractors and sub-contractors can play their part by better project planning which will also reduce their material and waste disposal costs bringing them a direct financial benefit. Reduce Ø Reduce the amount of money spent on waste. Ø Reduce waste disposal costs, e.g. handling charges, transport and taxes/levies. Ø Reduce the amount of raw material used. Ø Reduce the amount of waste on site. Ø Reduce transport of waste movements to recycling centres or landfill. Ø Reduce the amount of effort used to do a repetitive job. Improve Ø Improves efficiency on-site. Ø Influence worker habits while a relative degree of choice exists for disposal costs/options. Ø Better jobsite tidiness = improved health and safety. Ø Improves the site image. Ø Improves site management processes. (Construction_waste,) Table 1 Compare The West Allowance For Three Published Sources WORKS WESSEX PRICE BOOK(%) LAXTONS PRICE BOOK(%) SPONS PRICE BOOK(%) D Groundwork 5-10 % 5 40 % Add in to total E In situ concrete/Large precast concrete 2-12.5 % 2.5 15 % Add in to total F Masonry 1.5-5 % 2.5 15 % Add in to total G Structural/Carcassing Metal/Timber 2.5-5 % 2.5 10 % Add in to total H Cladding/Covering 2.5-10% 2.5 10 % Add in to total J Waterproofing 2-10 % 2.5 20 % Add in to total K Linings/Sheathing/Dry partitioning 2-10 % 2.5 20 % Add in to total L Windows/Doors/Stairs 2.5-10 % 2.5 10 % Add in to total M Surface finishes 2.5-10 % 5 50 % Add in to total N Furniture/Equipment 2.5-10 % 2.5 25 % Add in to total P Building fabric sundries 2.5-10 % 2.5 20 % Add in to total Q Paving/Planting/Fencing/Site furniture 2.5-10 % 2.5 40 % Add in to total R Disposal systems 2.5-10 % 1 15 % Add in to total S Piped supply systems 2.5-10% 2 10 % Add in to total T Mechanical heating/Cooling/Refrigeration systems 2-10 % 1 5 % Add in to total U Ventilation/Air-conditioning systems 5 % 2.5 % Add in to total V Electrical systems 5% 2.5 15 % Add in to total W Security systems 2.5-5% 2.5 % Add in to total Conclusion Waste allowance, the third essential element of a bill of materials, is important because during construction a certain amount of material is wasted due to cutting, fitting, and handling. For example, lumber comes in standard lengths which seldom can be used without cutting and fitting. Sometimes the piece of lumber cut off is used, but more often it goes into the scrap heap. Another example is mortar sand which is normally stored at the job site. The sand on the bottom of the pile cannot be picked up without some earth getting in it. This generally makes the sand unusable and therefore wasted. Waste allowance must be included in a bill of material to cover unavoidable losses. Allowance percentage is based on the function of the items, when developing waste allowance multiply the total quantity of any one particular part. Here spons price book didnt mention waste allowance separately Because that s included in total all in rate. Here my comparing purpose i used three published sources (Spons Architects And Builders Price Book, Laxtons building price book, Wessex price book) for finished this task, If we consider all works there is slide different for all three sources. So I recommended percentage waste allowance is most reliable for building works. Construction Industry Joint Council (CIJC) Working Rule Agreement The Working Rules Agreement (WRA) is published by the Joint Council for the Building Civil Engineering Industry (NI). The WRA contains the promulgated wages, allowances, holiday pay and pension entitlements together with a variety of other basic terms and conditions of employment. It forms the basic contract of employment for the industry. The WRA is incorporated by express reference in the standard Statement of Main Terms and Conditions of Employment. The working rules Part of the cost of labour is naturally the actual wages paid to the workers carrying out the productive work. The workers are generally referred to as operatives and we will return to the idea of productive work later in the chapter. The remainder of the cost of labour is made up of a number of payments which the builder must make and which are a direct result of employing operatives. Table -2 -Type of works relevant rules Type Rule Work in difficult conditions WR1 Bonus WR2 Working hours WR3 Overtime WR4 Daily fare and travel allowance WR5 Rotary shift working WR6 Night work WR7 Continuous working WR8 Tide work WR9 Tunnel work WR 10 Refuelling,servicingmaintenance WR 11 Storage of tools WR12 Loss of clothing WR 13 Transfer arrangements WR14 Subsistence allowance WR15 Period leave WR16 Guaranteed miniweekly earnings WR17 Annual holidays WR18 Sick pay WR20 Benefit schemes WR21 For my comparing purpose here also i take three public sources (Spons Architects And Builders Price Book, Laxtons building price book, Wessex price book).Here i mention Wessex price book example calculation ( under Construction Industry Joint Council (CIJC) Working Rule Agreement)- Table 3 Calculation of labour cost CIJC award Annual Cost of wages Craftsman Labourer Flat time 1893,8hrs,at 9.00 17044.20 at 6.77 12821.03 Non- productive overtime 65.5 hrs at 9.00 589.50 at 6.77 443.44 Public holidays 63.0 hrs at 9.00 567.00 at 6.77 426.51 Holiday pay allowance 176.0 hrs at 9.00 1584.00 at 6.77 1191.52 Sick pay 5 days at 18.72 93.60 at 18.72 93.60 Plus rate 2022.3 hrs at 9.83 - At- 19878.30 14976.09 Employes national insurance 12.80% 2544.42 12.80% 1916.94 Training allowance 0.50% of paye 99.39 At 0.50% 74.88 22522.11 16967.91 Severance pay other statutory costs 2.00% 450.44 2.00% 339.36 22972.56 17307.27 Total cost of productive hours 2.00% 459.45 2.00% 346.15 23432.01 17653.41 Total labour cost per hour 12.625 9.512 Effect of 10p/h pls rate on total cost pr hr 0.1284 0.1284 Wessex price book: 23rd edition (2006), Wessex Electronic Publishing Limited Conclusion The CIJC Working Rule Agreement will be recognized as Public Holidays for the purposes of the employees Employer. WRA provide flexible working hrs ,over time bonus.If we calculating all in rate (plant, material labour) we must follow the working rule agreement.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

John Dalton :: essays research papers

John Dalton Around September 2, 1766 John Dalton was born. He was born in Eaglesfield, England. Dalton was most known for the development of the modern atomic theory. Dalton was taught at his early ages of learning by his father and a Quaker teacher whom in 1778 Dalton would replace him after he retired. He quit that job and left his village to work with his cousin in Kendal, but he stayed a teacher. In 1793 he moved to Manchester, this is where he would remain the rest of his life. Dalton was influenced greatly by the mathematician John Gough. Dalton while in Manchester became the teacher of math and philosophy at a college. He taught there until 1799. Dalton became a chemist and physicist after his teaching jobs. Dalton did a lot of experimenting but did not test his experiments to make sure they were right. A good amount of his experiments were later proven to not be true. But his most famous theory "Dalton law" the modern atomic theory was proved true. John Dalton also published a lot of papers on atoms. His most famous article was on "absorption of gases by water and other liquids," this article contained his atomic theory. Dalton was the first person to develop a scientific atom theory, the ancient Greeks had ideas about the atom but could not prove it scientifically. Antoine Lavoisier and Dalton are responsible for the discovery of 90 natural elements. Dalton also explained the variations of water vapor in the atmosphere, the base of meteorology. Dalton’s atomic theory says that each element contained its own number of atoms. Each element had its own size and weight. Dalton’s idea said that all things are made of small bits of matter this bits of matter where too small to be seen even with a microscope. Scientist began to think these small bits of matter where responsible for chemical changes. They thought that when these bits of matter combined a chemical change took place. Dalton assumed that there was a special pattern in the elements and was partly responsible for the periodic table. Dalton in 1787 started to keep a journal. In Dalton’s journal he wrote about more than two hundred thousand observations. In 1793 he wrote a book about Meteorological observations. Dalton went to Paris in 1822 to discuss his theories with the other men of science in that time period.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Ecotourism in South American Countries: Has the Agenda Changed? :: Essays Papers

Ecotourism in South American Countries: Has the Agenda Changed? In many South American countries, there is a program in effect called Ecotourism. When the idea was initially though of, many of the developing countries of South America, had very poor economies as well as many suffering people. To act as a means of improving the status of these poor countries, the idea of Ecotourism was developed. In essence, Ecotourism is a program that permits tourists to visit and explore countries in South America while contributing their foreign capital to local economies. For the tourist, this is a great opportunity to see places of the world that have not been destroyed or inhabited by many. Though the idea of Ecotourism was one with good intentions, the local people in the countries where Ecotourism has been in effect are not gaining much at all. For this reason, I do not think that Ecotourism should be a continuing program in these countries. If the native people (whose best interest was at heart initially) are not benefiting from Ecotourism, then w hy has it been allowed to exist? The answer is simple: greed and selfishness. History of Ecotourism: The idea that led to Ecotourism emerged in the late sixties when people like Oswaldo Muà ±oz, now president of the Ecuadorian Ecotourism Association, started guiding tourists around their countries to view natural wonders. Many companies began to set up lodging near parks and reserves and even began to develop tours of those areas. The vision of showing off exotic plants, animals and the overall natural beauty of countries like Ecuador also attracted them. Yet early on, this did little to help the local economies. It actually contributed to other problems: In Ecuador, half of the country's rain forest disappeared, and environmental groups and other organizations promoting ecotourism flocked to places where endangered species, including many indigenous populations, lived. But with the growing environmental awareness of the seventies and the realization that large resorts like Acapulco and Cancun were devastating to the environment, both governmental and non-governmental organiza tions began to look for ways to both protect the environment and stimulate local economies. Thus ecotourism was born. Ecotourism Today: Ecotourism began in hopes of developing local economies in South American countries while attracting tourists to the natural beauty and exotic wonders of the land. The Vermont-based Ecotourism Society defines it as "responsible travel to natural areas, which conserves the environment and sustains the well-being of local people. Ecotourism in South American Countries: Has the Agenda Changed? :: Essays Papers Ecotourism in South American Countries: Has the Agenda Changed? In many South American countries, there is a program in effect called Ecotourism. When the idea was initially though of, many of the developing countries of South America, had very poor economies as well as many suffering people. To act as a means of improving the status of these poor countries, the idea of Ecotourism was developed. In essence, Ecotourism is a program that permits tourists to visit and explore countries in South America while contributing their foreign capital to local economies. For the tourist, this is a great opportunity to see places of the world that have not been destroyed or inhabited by many. Though the idea of Ecotourism was one with good intentions, the local people in the countries where Ecotourism has been in effect are not gaining much at all. For this reason, I do not think that Ecotourism should be a continuing program in these countries. If the native people (whose best interest was at heart initially) are not benefiting from Ecotourism, then w hy has it been allowed to exist? The answer is simple: greed and selfishness. History of Ecotourism: The idea that led to Ecotourism emerged in the late sixties when people like Oswaldo Muà ±oz, now president of the Ecuadorian Ecotourism Association, started guiding tourists around their countries to view natural wonders. Many companies began to set up lodging near parks and reserves and even began to develop tours of those areas. The vision of showing off exotic plants, animals and the overall natural beauty of countries like Ecuador also attracted them. Yet early on, this did little to help the local economies. It actually contributed to other problems: In Ecuador, half of the country's rain forest disappeared, and environmental groups and other organizations promoting ecotourism flocked to places where endangered species, including many indigenous populations, lived. But with the growing environmental awareness of the seventies and the realization that large resorts like Acapulco and Cancun were devastating to the environment, both governmental and non-governmental organiza tions began to look for ways to both protect the environment and stimulate local economies. Thus ecotourism was born. Ecotourism Today: Ecotourism began in hopes of developing local economies in South American countries while attracting tourists to the natural beauty and exotic wonders of the land. The Vermont-based Ecotourism Society defines it as "responsible travel to natural areas, which conserves the environment and sustains the well-being of local people.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Material Requirements Planning (Mrp)

Material Requirements Planning (MRP) An overview of MRP Material Requirements Planning (MRP) is a software based production planning and inventory control system used to manage manufacturing processes. Although it is not common nowadays, it is possible to conduct MRP by hand as well. Is a computer based information system that translates the finished product requirements of the master schedule into time- phased requirements for subassemblies, component parts and raw materials, working backward from the due date using lead times and other information to determine when and how much to order.Material requirements planning is as much a philosophy as it is a technique, and as much approach to scheduling as it to inventory control. MRP begin with a schedule for finished goods that is converted into a schedule of requirements for the subassemblies, components parts, and raw materials is needed to produce the finished items in the specified time frame. Thus, MRP is designed to answer three q uestions: what is needed? How much is needed? and When is needed?Manufacturing industries must follow planning processes for every product, from its developmental stage to initial production and to final product. To outline each part of production planning, businesses use computer-based information tools such as material requirements planning, or MRP, and manufacturing resource planning, or MRP I. They function as integrated manufacturing control and activity systems MRP inputs An MRP system has three major sources of information: a master schedule, a bill of materials file, and an inventory records file.A master schedule is also referred to as master production schedule, states which ends items are to be produced when they are needed, and in what quantities. Then, a bills of materials(BOM) contains a listing of all the assemblies, parts, and raw materials that are needed to produce one unit of a finished product. Thus each finished product has its own bill of materials. And lastly, inventory records refers to stored information on the status of each items by time period, called time buckets. This include gross requirements, scheduled receipts, and expected amount on hand.It also include other details for each items, such as supplier, lead time, and lot size policy. MRP Systems MRP systems use production stage charts, materials requirement planning and master production schedules to outline the process of creating final products. It outlines the time needed during each production stage, status of outstanding orders and inventory needs for the initial process. It determines the time required for each production stage and demand for the final product. MRP1 Systems MRPII adds data resources to the original MRP manufacturing information systems.MRPII incorporates plan activities–such as a detailed production schedule and financial needs, inventory management, demand planning, shop-floor control and performance measurements–into manufacturing groups, such as the car industry and Marine Corps logistics. MRP and MRPI Integration MRP and MRPI systems are normally integrated into other production systems, such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), but are still found separately today due to computer prices. The system a company uses depends on requirements.Just In Time (JIT) inventory strategy will sometimes supersede MRP during repetitive manufacturing processes, since receiving the raw materials during production cuts down on warehouse space and costs. For pharmaceutical and defense manufacturing industries, which use non repetitive production processes, the MRP system is still preferred. Project Benefits MRP allows for organization of the process as a project instead of continuous operation. The project engineer can produce a project master document with such information as division into units, date of the plan and name of the project. A project team is formed.The name of the team, role of the team and role of any team member or employee using MRP will be defined. Activities in the project can be linked through the use of planning, control of activities and co-ordination. MRP can be used to compute the earliest and latest possible start date for each activity of the project. MRP utilizes reject codes to assure consistent product quality by identifying units out of compliance. MRP further assures quality by using quality assurance methods to monitor line production. Rejected lots of product are tracked by operation work centers. Rejection of materials is tracked by vendor.Guidelines are developed for inspection of finished products as well as at pre-determined points in the manufacturing process. Outgoing goods' quality control and quality certifications are utilized. The benefits of the implementation of MRP versus of the cost of the system are considerations for companies examining this method. Lower end estimates for the cost of such a system are approximately $93,000 for a small company to $1,633,000 fo r the largest companies. However, the implementation approach, management support and degree of computerization have been found to be more important in achieving benefits than the cost of the system.The size of the company and the nature of the process or product appear to have little effect upon success. MRP will plan production so that the right materials are at the right place at the right time. MRP determines the latest possible time to product goods, buy materials and add manufacturing value. Proper Material Requirements Planning can keep cash in the firm and still fulfill all production demands. It is the single most powerful tool in guiding inventory planning, purchase management and production control. MRP is easy to operate and adds dramatically to profits.