Friday, November 15, 2019

Cyrus the Great: Leadership

Cyrus the Great: Leadership Introduction The word Cyrus is derived from Ancient Greek. This word comes from Old Persian originally from Kurosh meaning to bestow care or the Sun. In the Bible, he is known as simply Koresh. In the Quran, he is known as Zol-qarnain (Arabic: Ø °Ãƒâ„¢Ã‹â€ ÃƒËœÃƒâ„¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡ÃƒËœÃ‚ ±Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â‚¬  Ãƒâ„¢Ã…  Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â‚¬  ). Cyrus the Great was the founder of the Archaemenian dynasty and the Persian Empire. Cyrus military victories eventually put him in possession of the largest empire in the world at that time. Also we can say that he was an extraordinarily humane ruler for that time. Surely he has achieved his greatness not by words but by hard and difficult choices, actions, and sacrifices. His strategy towards the people of his empire was one of lenience and understanding, as reflected in his agreement of the rebuilding of the Jerusalem Temple in 538 BC. Biography Cyrus the Great was born in about 590 BC, in the province of Persis (nowadays called Fars), in southwest of Iran. Cyrus was the grandson of Astyages, king of the Medes. Before Cyruss birth, Astyages had dreamed that his grandson would someday overthrow him. The king ordered that the boy infant be killed promptly after his birth. However, the official entrusted with the job of killing the infant had no heart for such a bloody deed, and instead handed him over to a shepherd and his wife with instructions that they put the child to death. But they, too, were unwilling to kill the boy, and instead reared him as their own. Ultimately, when the child grew up, he indeed caused the kings downfall. Cyrus conquered the Lydian Empire in Asia Minor, which was ruled by King Croesus, a wealthy man. By 546 BC Cyrus had conquered the Lydian Empire and Croesus became his prisoner. After several campaigns, Cyrus conquered eastern Iran and incorporated it into his empire. However Cyrus the Great overthrew three great empires, Babylonians, Medes, and Lydians and united most of the ancient Middle East into one state, extending from India to the Mediterranean Sea. Cyrus became the first Achaemenian Emperor of Persia, and had the title of King of Babylon-King of the Land. No one has accurate information from the personal beliefs of Cyrus the Great. But based on current evidence we can say that Religion of Cyrus the Great was Zoroastrian that is the dedication to ethical and moral excellence which is based on three simple fundamental principles: GOOD THOUGHTS, GOOD WORDS and GOOD DEEDS Cyrus was eventually killed in a battle with the Massagetae tribes in Central Asia, east of the Caspian Sea in 530 BC. His body was buried at Pasargadae, the Old Persian capital. The Persian Empire thrived in peace and prosperity for two hundred years. Cyrus The Great position in the world leadership in his era I think that Cyrus the Great had an authentic leadership. He achieves highest position among all world leaders throughout the human history because of the following reasons: He had high moral and ethical values. He created Persian Empire based on moral principles. Expanded the Ethical Empire to include all men who wish to join it. Freedoms of religion, job, and place of residency; being advocate of freedom of choice 2500 years ago is highly venerable. He was tolerant of local religions and local customs. In the Bible (e.g., Ezra 1:1-4), Cyrus is famous for freeing the Jewish captives in Babylonia and allowing them to return to their homeland. His name occurs twenty two times in the Bible. Organization of a Constitution and Judicial system based on high ethical values. Created Gold and Silver coins for trading. Ordered all Governors to treat the people as their own children, and no one could be executed for a first time crime. Slavery was not allowed. The Old Persian culture did not accept the concept of slavery. He liked to consult with other leaders from different ethnic backgrounds. He had immense military ability and he was a great statesman. Cyrus the Great had a Major influence on the thinking of Aristotle and Alexander the Great, and the Roman Empire form of government. He was moderate and respectful toward his defeated opponents, and if they were popular leaders among their people, he would let them continue with their positions. Traits of Cyrus the Great and establishment of his ethical Persian Empire some 2500 years ago and continued existence of Achaemenid rule for 200 years indicate a successful leadership based on moral principles. Cyrus the Great had a lot of respect for ethical values. Unquestionably, his moral values and leadership skills affected his highly successful and respected situation throughout his empire era and among all people under his government. To prove this fact, one can say about The First Declaration of Human Rights decree by Cyrus the Great inscribed on a clay cylinder in cuneiform discovered in 1879 by Hormoz Rasam in Babol and now in The British Museum. This is the text of the clay cylinder: . .When my soldiers in great numbers peacefully entered Babylon I did not allow anyone to terrorize the people I kept in view the needs of people and all its sanctuaries to promote their well-being I freed all the slaves I put an end to their misfortune and slavery (referred to 42,000 slaveries in the Babylon in that time). Characteristic of Cyrus The Great Intelligent Cyrus the great was intelligent because he utilized his opportunities in an exceptional way. His establishment of the biggest empire in the world is in fact an antiquity. Also, he innovated new strategies and new structures of ruling over his conquered lands. He used different strategies in different situations. Military ability and Statesman Cyrus had immense military abilities and he was very clever in commanding and conducting wars. But that was only one side facet of this great man. Great trait of Cyrus was the gentle character of his rule. He was very tolerant of local religions and local customs, and he was disinclined to the extreme brutality and cruelty, which characterized so many other conquerors. Tactic of war of Cyrus is demonstrated in his war with the Lydian king Croesus. Pacific He did not change the institution of the kingdoms he incorporated into the Persian Empire, and allowed all the people to live in peace and harmony. Cyrus is admired as a liberator rather than a conqueror, because he respected the customs and religions of each part of his vast empire. Innovation Cyrus established post system and post office for fast data transfer across the empire. Also, Cyrus had influence in the urban planning and buildings of that time including Persepolis. His great innovation was to divide the huge empire into more or less independent provinces called satrapies. Wisdom and Toleration Cyrus was welcomed into Babylon as a liberator by the population. It is important to note that his military were given strict orders not to plunder or in any way harm the citizens. It is a testament to his leadership that these orders were fully obeyed. It also shows the tight control he had over his army. After the victory of Babylon, the Babylonians were instructed to rebuild their temple, destroyed almost seven decades ago by Nebuchandrezzer II. Cyrus exhorted them to pray to their god and offer sacrifices. Religious freedom and justice became a hallmark of the Persian Empire. Modernity Terminology Its not exaggeration if we call some of his works was really compatible with the modernity terminology. To name a few is what he has done about the slavery. Other Keys of Success Consult with other leaders Although Cyrus the Great was a genius he would consult with other leaders from different ethnic background to come up with a better solution for their problems. Effective Organization Cyrus organized his empire in such a way to be to be divided into different provinces or Satrapies. He reduced the 3-month time it took to get messages by horse from Susa to Sardis to less than 2-weeks with the construction of the Royal Road. Cyrus sent imperial agents into each province to observe conditions and report back to him. Perhaps his greatest administrative innovation was the adoption of Aramaic as the official administrative language of the empire, given the diverse ethnic makeup of the provinces. The leadership qualities of Cyrus resulted in an empire that endured for centuries, even after many outside invasions. His methods were reportedly copied by future rulers that read the accounts of his kingship recorded by ancient historians. Leadership in the post-modern world can look to the life of Cyrus and apply many of his principles to 21st-Century problems. Level of Leadership Level 5 Leaders To know why he is an effective leader, it may suffice to mention that all his commanders obeyed him as they trusted him. Meanwhile, there are many historical facts that he influenced other great leaders in his era and even after his death these influences continued to exist and inspire great leaders of the world. He was an executive leader, as he used to be in the most front line of any battle, also he was involving in valuable Persian architecture and moreover he was writing all orders about the other religious treatments and last but not least he was totally involved in political structures of his Empire. Sources: Leadership Traits of Cyrus the Great (-08-28Aug 28, 2009);Michael Streich. Cyrus the Great From Wikipedia: Cyrus the Great Biography of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Persian empire Cyrus The Great The Father Liberator (1999); Shapour Suren-Pahlav Telecommuting: the advantages and disadvantages Telecommuting: the advantages and disadvantages Introduction Many authors have tried to define telecommuting in one clear definition. The definitions differ from telecommuting is working from home (Mokhtarian, 1991) to definitions including time, places and used tools descriptions. This paper will demonstrate that telecommuting is a working arrangement that provides employees the opportunity to work from other places then the employers office for at least a part of their normal work schedule, using technology to interact with colleagues, supervisors and other professional contacts. Despite the still growing popularity of telecommuting, there are as many advantages as well disadvantages for both employee and employer. This paper discusses some of the major advantages and disadvantages of telecommuting for both the employer and the employee. As this paper point out, as a result of more control over work-schedule, the decreased traveling time and costs, and an changed working environment, telecommuting can contribute to an increased job satisfaction for the telecommuter. Disadvantages however include possible dangers as overworking and overeating, and the reduction of professional relationships with colleagues and supervisors. This reduction can lead to a decreasing change of promotion. For the employer, the increase of job satisfaction means in general a higher productivity, and a lower staff turnover. Telecommuting can also reduce the costs of hiring, leasing of buying real estate to provide offices and the possibility to hire professional labor worldwide. However, also employers have to take into account some major disadvantages. The reduced face-to-face interaction, necessary to value an employer and the possible unbalance in a team when only a few functions lend them for telecommuting. Despite the many advantages of telecommuting, its success is strongly dependent on the function, company regulations and management, and the telecommuter self if telecommuting will be a success. Advantages for the employee A first major advantage of telecommuting is the reduction of traveling time and costs as a result of the possibility to work from home or other central working spaces in the neighbourhood (Mokhtarian, 1991). Some companies establish teleworkcenters and remote offices as alternative locations for their telecommuting workers. However in most cases the home of the telecommuter will become the working-place (Mokhtarian, 1991) (Gajendran Harrison, 2007). The reduction of travelling time and costs as a result of work from home can contribute to an increased job satisfaction. Another advantage of telecommuting is the possibility to adjust working hours to personal needs. If for instance the telecommuter has a family at home and arrange to telecommute from home, the telecommuter has no travelling time, can work with the family in the neighbourhood, and due the face the work schedule is flexible, is possible to create more quality time with the family. Therefore, telecommuting can contribute to an improved family relationship. A major overall advantage of telecommuting is the increase in job satisfaction. Research has shown that the changes caused by telecommuting in the previous section, often result in a higher job satisfaction. This is a result of the fact the telecommuter has increased control over the location, timing and means of completing the work (Gajendran Harrison, 2007). To conclude the advantages as stated before; telecommuting seems to contribute to improvement of work and personal relationships by the utilizing the flexibility of the telecommuting concept. As a result of telecommuting the job satisfaction of the employee can be increased. Disadvantages for the employee The following paragraph will discuss the disadvantages for the employee. The first important disadvantages is the reduction of the availability of resources. Telecommuting reduces the access to resources found only at employers office. An example of a resource that not can be accessed from home are for instance accounting-records, that normally contains physical papers like invoices and work orders. Depending on the job one has, it can be important to access those archives to get collect information (Green, Là ³pez, Wysocki, Kepner, 2003). Reduction of availability of resources and date can impact the productivity due the fact essential data is not available. Matters that occur because of a lack of regulation can be pointed out as a second disadvantage. It can cause the potential danger to over-work, over-eat and under-exercise, the so called desk-potato  or  fridge  factor  syndrome (Fortier, 1999).. Those symptoms can occur because pause times are no longer pre-set and the temptation of eating is for some no longer in control. The risks of overworking and overeating cannot be underestimated and therefor have to take in account by telecommuter and as well by the employer. Another disadvantage of telecommuting, concerning professional relationships, is the lack of personal contact with colleagues and supervisors. Because telecommuting reduces the face-to-face communication, different theories make similar predictions about quality and frequency of interaction, implying mainly negative impacts on interpersonal relationships for telecommuters. In a regular office setting, it is possible to provide direct input in solving problems on every scale. It is also possible to directly receive feedback when a certain situations take place. Even the distractions by colleagues can be important moments to reinforce relationships. Face-to-face interactions with colleagues provide access to informal networks and create opportunities for job relevant interactions. Spatial distance from others at work likely translates into personal distance; for telecommuters this might mean becoming out of sight, out of mind. Face-to-face communication is considered the medium with th e highest social presence and very important in personal and professional relationships. (Gajendran Harrison, 2007). Personal face-to-face interaction is essential in job and professional relationship developments, reducing those moments can influence both developments negatively. Advantages for the employer The following paragraph will discuss the advantage for the employer. For the employer there are advantages concerning the changed the work environment. For example, if telecommuting days are flexible and if that result in a lower presence of employers evenly spread over the week, business require less office-space and less parking for employees. Instead of leasing new office space or expanding existing office buildings, it is vastly less expensive to provide telecommuters with their own communication tools to work from their own homes (Green, Là ³pez, Wysocki, Kepner, 2003) (HongGirl, Bongsik, Kunihiko, 2007). Some companies opt to create central working offices outside of the city instead of using expensive office space in the centre. The employer can hire less expensive office-space together with other telecommute supporting companies and with that reduce costs. With telecommuting work is no longer time or place bounded. This results in another major advantage of telecommuting that it can create the possibility to hire professional labor from over the whole world, including those with health problems and disabilities. (Green, Là ³pez, Wysocki, Kepner, 2003). Disadvantages for the employer The following paragraphs will discuss the disadvantages of telecommuting for the employer. The first major disadvantages for the employer can be the fact telecommuting creates a physical distance between the employee and their colleagues and supervisors. Normally in an office setting the supervisor is able to supervise the employees directly. A potential disadvantage of telecommuting is the impact on professional relationships due to reduced direct interaction and the possibility to interact face-to-face. According to Management today, (as cited in Green, Là ³pez, Wysicki Kepner, 2003. p 4 ) It is imperative to understand that telecommunication is an alternative option and not a substitute for person-to-person contact associated with traditional business settings. When it comes to understanding, research has suggested that 75 percent of communication is non-verbal (Management Today, 2000). As the source above stated, personal contact cannot be replaced by forms of indirect contact, because 75 percent of communication is non-verbal and it is therefore very important to see the other when communicate. Another disadvantages for employers and especially a challenge for managers is overcome the possible jealousy from co-workers who cannot telecommute due the function they have (Gajendran Harrison, 2007). Equally employees with different visible benefits can cause separation within a team, it is for the manager to deal with those differences and overcome problems cause by it. A unbalance in a team caused by telecommuting is a disadvantage that shows also the importance to consider the consequence in larger perspective. Conditions for telecommuting According to Green, Là ³pez, Wysocki, and Kepner (2003), not all jobs lend themselves to telecommuting. For instance, jobs that involve direct management, face-to-face contact with customers, frequent meetings, manufacturing and warehousing of goods, purchasing, and facility management are not suitable for telecommuting operations. Jobs that do lend themselves to telecommuting include for example systems and information managers, writers, computer programmers, auditing reports, data entry. The reason why those jobs lend themselves for telecommuting is that they are mainly done with a computer and involve normally no frequent interaction with intern or extern parties. According to the Department of Vocational Rehabilitation as cited in Green, Là ³pez, Wysocki, Kepner (2003) successful telecommuters are self-starters who can do a good job with minimal supervision. They know how to organize their work and time, and are able to work well with tele-managers. In addition, telecommuters have low socialization needs and good communication skills. Factors of decreased supervision, (informal) communication with colleagues and managers, lack of time structure guidelines has to be conquer to become a good telecommuter. For the employer there are also conditions for successful telecommuting. First it is important to develop effective telecommuting business policies which provide guidelines for telecommuting. Second, plan for technical equipment and support for the telecommuting network, this is important because it all comes down to the technical equipment. After that is been done, select and properly train telecommuters and prepare managers for telecommuting supervision. This is important because it is not like regular supervising. A company has to accomplice several conditions before it can introduce telecommuting Analysis Analyzing these advantages and disadvantages, it can be stated that the possible benefits as result of introducing telecommuting is at least questionable. As the condition section pointed out, telecommuting is strongly dependent of the telecommuter, the company and the function. However, the telecommuter can be flexible with his or her work-schedule to meet personal needs, has needed less travelling time and costs, and can change the working environment which can result in a higher job satisfaction, the disadvantages can be underestimated. The telecommuter has to challenge difficulties that occurs by the lack of regulations, and the reduced face-to-face contact with colleagues and supervisors. Especially the reduction of face-to-face contact can lead to a smaller change of promotion. For the employer, the reduction of needed office and parking space, the possibility to hire professional labour around the world, and the possible increased productivity as result of the increased job satisfaction, are reasons to consider the support of telecommuting. It is on the other hand very important to take into account that the personal interaction with the employees is essential in a professional relationship. Reducing that interaction can lead to out of sight, out of mind and can cause a struggle in the relationship with the employee. Besides this it is recommend to overview the potential group of telecommuters, as stated before. When a potential group contains team members but not include the whole team, it is possible that teams will become unbalanced. It is therefore necessary to take the possible consequence of introducing telecommuting into account before it is implemented. Conclusion Companies consider supporting the concept of telecommuting have to take many challenges into account. Despite telecommuting can increase job satisfaction and productivity, the reduced personal face-to-face interaction and the possible consequence of that are significant disadvantages that overweight the advantages on general basis. The statement out of sight, out of mind support this. Changing ones workplace from a conventional office to a home or an alternate location is likely to alter the frequency, the quality, and, by definition, the modality of interaction one has with other organization members. Telecommuting therefore has the potential to degrade the quality of the manager-subordinate relationship (Cooper Kurland, 2002) (Gajendran Harrison, 2007). If providing a telecommuting structure is be considered, it is important to overthink the possible impact for telecommuters as well for non-telecommuters. If a company decides to support telecommuting, it is essential to set clear guidelines and limitations for telecommuters and for supervisors. To conclude, telecommuting cannot replace normal work arrangements, it can only be added to meet employees needs. Reference list Cooper, C., Kurland, N. (2002). Telecommuting, professional isolation, and employee development in public and private organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior 23, 511-532. DOI: 10.1002/job.145 Fortier, B. (1999) About telework, retrieved on March 27, 2011, from Innovisions Canada: Gajendran, D., Harrison, R. (2007). The Good, the Bad, and the Unknown About Telecommuting: Meta-Analysis of Psycological Mediators and Individual Consequences. Journal of Applied Psychological, 92, 1524-1541. Green, K., Là ³pez, M., Wysocki, A., Kepner, K. (2003). Telecommuting as a true workplace alternative1. Gainesville, FL, United States: Department of Food and Resource Economics, University Florida. Retrieved from: HongGirl, L., Bongsik, S., Kunihiko, H. (2007). Telework vs. central work: A comparative view of knowledge accessibility. Decision Support Systems, 687-700. doi:10.1016/j.dss.2006.11.007 Kossek, E., Lautsch, B., Eaton, S. (2006). Telecommuting, control and boundary management; correlates of policy use and practice, job control, and work-family effectiveness. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 68, 347-367. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2005.07.00 Mokhtarian, P. (1991). Defining telecommuting. Davis, California, US: Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis. Retrieved from: University Zuyd Academic Skills. Assessment form for written papers Date à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦. 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There is an outline/overview paragraph at the end of the introduction. 10 Body Paragraphing Each paragraph: discusses a new point and has a clear topic sentence. has appropriate supporting material: facts, examples, quotes, paraphrased or summarised information. has unity. has coherence. has linking within and/or beyond paragraphs. 30 Conclusion sums up the paper, refers back to thesis and has a clear conclusion and leaves the reader with the writers final thoughts on the topic. contains no new information. 10 Style and Tone The style and the tone are appropriate. The paper contains appropriate hedging language to qualify strong statements. 5 Vocabulary, terminology, wordiness Text contains accurate vocabulary, terminology and is not too wordy. 5

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