Friday, September 20, 2019
Waste allowance of muna building
Waste allowance of muna building Introduction Waste is any substance or object(s) the holder discards or intends to discard. Any material which is perceived to have no further use is waste.Waste becomes more a product because of the cost and location of aggregates and other new materials and also because of the cost of disposal. These two factors drive the definition of waste. If you have easy availability of landfill and large quantities of aggregate close at hand you will not get a premium on the use of recycled materials. Concept of construction waste Construction waste consists of unwanted material produced directly or incidentally by the construction or industries. This includes building materials such as insulation, nails, electrical wiring, and rebar. Much building waste is made up of materials such as bricks, concrete and wood damaged or unused for various reasons during construction. Observational research has shown that this can be as high as 10 to 15% of the materials that go into a building, a much higher percentage than the 2.5-5% usually assumed by quantity surveyors. Efficacy of waste allowance The following benefits can be achieved if estimators use waste allowance while pricing:- ÃË Cost savings ÃË Financial benefits ÃË Financial benefits ÃË Identify the actual cost. ÃË Uses materials efficiently ÃË Uses materials efficiently ÃË Ensure that waste issues are considered and addressed ÃË Comparing against estimates and targets (Reducing_Material_Wastage_in_Construction.3b4442f9.4711.pdf,http://www. longworthconsulting.co.uk ) Encouraging Prevention of Construction Waste In general the environmental advantages of using reclaimed or recycled materials are greatest if the material or product is used in the highest grade application possible. For example one should process demolition rubble and use it as aggregate for a new concrete rather than just using it for fill. Waste arriving methods in construction materials Flooring:- cutting of floor tiles to fit room layouts Ceilings:- cutting of ceiling tiles and fixing to fit room layouts Insulations: -cutting of insulation boards to fit openings Tiling: -cutting of floor and wall tiles to suit design and rooms shapes Paving::-cutting of paving slabs to fit layout To reduce waste on construction sites certain general recommendations may be made, e.g. ÃË Need to critically assess the quantities ordered ÃË Review the ordering procedures ÃË Manage deliveries ÃË Protect materials during storage ÃË Only take the material that is needed ÃË Return surplus materials to stores ÃË Protect materials at the work-site The Different Waste Types Visible Waste What you see in the skip. Process Waste Badly designed procedures or working practices that lead to inefficiency, ineffectiveness and errors. Waiting and searching for someone/something/information is a big invisible waste. Transaction Waste Transactions are people-to-people activities such as communications, excessive planning/discussions and delayed project handovers. The idea of lost time is an invisible waste. The waste produced by the construction industry is not just a burden on the environment and the ecological system, but it is also a huge cost to the industry itself. For example: ÃË Transport cost of excess material to site ÃË Cleaning and collection of excess material and waste ÃË Transport of waste from the building site ÃË Waste disposal costs ÃË Better project planning: planning of material requirements (exact quantities), planning of material deliveries to site and planning of material usage ÃË Organized waste disposal ÃË Increasing the level of recycling of construction waste Solving the problems of waste disposaltouches many vendors involved in the construction project: the owner, designers, contractors, etc. It starts from making it a concern already at initial stages of the project planning and continuing it through the design phase. Contractors and sub-contractors can play their part by better project planning which will also reduce their material and waste disposal costs bringing them a direct financial benefit. Reduce ÃË Reduce the amount of money spent on waste. ÃË Reduce waste disposal costs, e.g. handling charges, transport and taxes/levies. ÃË Reduce the amount of raw material used. ÃË Reduce the amount of waste on site. ÃË Reduce transport of waste movements to recycling centres or landfill. ÃË Reduce the amount of effort used to do a repetitive job. Improve ÃË Improves efficiency on-site. ÃË Influence worker habits while a relative degree of choice exists for disposal costs/options. ÃË Better jobsite tidiness = improved health and safety. ÃË Improves the site image. ÃË Improves site management processes. (Construction_waste,) Table 1 Compare The West Allowance For Three Published Sources WORKS WESSEX PRICE BOOK(%) LAXTONS PRICE BOOK(%) SPONS PRICE BOOK(%) D Groundwork 5-10 % 5 40 % Add in to total E In situ concrete/Large precast concrete 2-12.5 % 2.5 15 % Add in to total F Masonry 1.5-5 % 2.5 15 % Add in to total G Structural/Carcassing Metal/Timber 2.5-5 % 2.5 10 % Add in to total H Cladding/Covering 2.5-10% 2.5 10 % Add in to total J Waterproofing 2-10 % 2.5 20 % Add in to total K Linings/Sheathing/Dry partitioning 2-10 % 2.5 20 % Add in to total L Windows/Doors/Stairs 2.5-10 % 2.5 10 % Add in to total M Surface finishes 2.5-10 % 5 50 % Add in to total N Furniture/Equipment 2.5-10 % 2.5 25 % Add in to total P Building fabric sundries 2.5-10 % 2.5 20 % Add in to total Q Paving/Planting/Fencing/Site furniture 2.5-10 % 2.5 40 % Add in to total R Disposal systems 2.5-10 % 1 15 % Add in to total S Piped supply systems 2.5-10% 2 10 % Add in to total T Mechanical heating/Cooling/Refrigeration systems 2-10 % 1 5 % Add in to total U Ventilation/Air-conditioning systems 5 % 2.5 % Add in to total V Electrical systems 5% 2.5 15 % Add in to total W Security systems 2.5-5% 2.5 % Add in to total Conclusion Waste allowance, the third essential element of a bill of materials, is important because during construction a certain amount of material is wasted due to cutting, fitting, and handling. For example, lumber comes in standard lengths which seldom can be used without cutting and fitting. Sometimes the piece of lumber cut off is used, but more often it goes into the scrap heap. Another example is mortar sand which is normally stored at the job site. The sand on the bottom of the pile cannot be picked up without some earth getting in it. This generally makes the sand unusable and therefore wasted. Waste allowance must be included in a bill of material to cover unavoidable losses. Allowance percentage is based on the function of the items, when developing waste allowance multiply the total quantity of any one particular part. Here spons price book didnt mention waste allowance separately Because that s included in total all in rate. Here my comparing purpose i used three published sources (Spons Architects And Builders Price Book, Laxtons building price book, Wessex price book) for finished this task, If we consider all works there is slide different for all three sources. So I recommended percentage waste allowance is most reliable for building works. Construction Industry Joint Council (CIJC) Working Rule Agreement The Working Rules Agreement (WRA) is published by the Joint Council for the Building Civil Engineering Industry (NI). The WRA contains the promulgated wages, allowances, holiday pay and pension entitlements together with a variety of other basic terms and conditions of employment. It forms the basic contract of employment for the industry. The WRA is incorporated by express reference in the standard Statement of Main Terms and Conditions of Employment. The working rules Part of the cost of labour is naturally the actual wages paid to the workers carrying out the productive work. The workers are generally referred to as operatives and we will return to the idea of productive work later in the chapter. The remainder of the cost of labour is made up of a number of payments which the builder must make and which are a direct result of employing operatives. Table -2 -Type of works relevant rules Type Rule Work in difficult conditions WR1 Bonus WR2 Working hours WR3 Overtime WR4 Daily fare and travel allowance WR5 Rotary shift working WR6 Night work WR7 Continuous working WR8 Tide work WR9 Tunnel work WR 10 Refuelling,servicingmaintenance WR 11 Storage of tools WR12 Loss of clothing WR 13 Transfer arrangements WR14 Subsistence allowance WR15 Period leave WR16 Guaranteed miniweekly earnings WR17 Annual holidays WR18 Sick pay WR20 Benefit schemes WR21 For my comparing purpose here also i take three public sources (Spons Architects And Builders Price Book, Laxtons building price book, Wessex price book).Here i mention Wessex price book example calculation ( under Construction Industry Joint Council (CIJC) Working Rule Agreement)- Table 3 Calculation of labour cost CIJC award Annual Cost of wages Craftsman Labourer Flat time 1893,8hrs,at 9.00 17044.20 at 6.77 12821.03 Non- productive overtime 65.5 hrs at 9.00 589.50 at 6.77 443.44 Public holidays 63.0 hrs at 9.00 567.00 at 6.77 426.51 Holiday pay allowance 176.0 hrs at 9.00 1584.00 at 6.77 1191.52 Sick pay 5 days at 18.72 93.60 at 18.72 93.60 Plus rate 2022.3 hrs at 9.83 - At- 19878.30 14976.09 Employes national insurance 12.80% 2544.42 12.80% 1916.94 Training allowance 0.50% of paye 99.39 At 0.50% 74.88 22522.11 16967.91 Severance pay other statutory costs 2.00% 450.44 2.00% 339.36 22972.56 17307.27 Total cost of productive hours 2.00% 459.45 2.00% 346.15 23432.01 17653.41 Total labour cost per hour 12.625 9.512 Effect of 10p/h pls rate on total cost pr hr 0.1284 0.1284 Wessex price book: 23rd edition (2006), Wessex Electronic Publishing Limited Conclusion The CIJC Working Rule Agreement will be recognized as Public Holidays for the purposes of the employees Employer. WRA provide flexible working hrs ,over time bonus.If we calculating all in rate (plant, material labour) we must follow the working rule agreement.